Broadband Multi-wavelength Properties of M87 during the 2017 Event Horizon Telescope Campaign

J. C. Algaba, J. Anczarski, K. Asada, M. Baloković, S. Chandra, Y. Z. Cui, A. D. Falcone, M. Giroletti, C. Goddi, K. Hada, D. Haggard, S. Jorstad, A. Kaur, T. Kawashima, G. Keating, J. Y. Kim, M. Kino, S. Komossa, E. V. Kravchenko, T. P. KrichbaumS. S. Lee, R. S. Lu, M. Lucchini, S. Markoff, J. Neilsen, M. A. Nowak, J. Park, G. Principe, V. Ramakrishnan, M. T. Reynolds, M. Sasada, S. S. Savchenko, K. E. Williamson, Kazunori Akiyama, Antxon Alberdi, Walter Alef, Richard Anantua, Rebecca Azulay, Anne Kathrin Baczko, David Ball, John Barrett, Dan Bintley, Bradford A. Benson, Lindy Blackburn, Raymond Blundell, Wilfred Boland, Katherine L. Bouman, Geoffrey C. Bower, Hope Boyce, Michael Bremer, Christiaan D. Brinkerink, Roger Brissenden, Silke Britzen, Avery E. Broderick, Dominique Broguiere, Thomas Bronzwaer, Do Young Byun, John E. Carlstrom, Andrew Chael, Chi Kwan Chan, Shami Chatterjee, Koushik Chatterjee, Ming Tang Chen, Yongjun Chen, Paul M. Chesler, Ilje Cho, Pierre Christian, John E. 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Preciado-López, Dimitrios Psaltis, Hung Yi Pu, Ramprasad Rao, Mark G. Rawlings, Alexander W. Raymond, Luciano Rezzolla, Angelo Ricarte, Bart Ripperda, Freek Roelofs, Alan Rogers, Eduardo Ros, Mel Rose, Arash Roshanineshat, Helge Rottmann, Alan L. Roy, Chet Ruszczyk, Kazi L.J. Rygl, Salvador Sánchez, David Sánchez-Arguelles, Tuomas Savolainen, F. Peter Schloerb, Karl Friedrich Schuster, Lijing Shao, Zhiqiang Shen, Des Small, Bong Won Sohn, Jason Soohoo, He Sun, Fumie Tazaki, Alexandra J. Tetarenko, Paul Tiede, Remo P.J. Tilanus, Michael Titus, Kenji Toma, Pablo Torne, Tyler Trent, Efthalia Traianou, Sascha Trippe, Ilse Van Bemmel, Huib Jan Van Langevelde, Daniel R. Van Rossum, Jan Wagner, Derek Ward-Thompson, John Wardle, Jonathan Weintroub, Norbert Wex, Robert Wharton, Maciek Wielgus, George N. Wong, Qingwen Wu, Doosoo Yoon, André Young, Ken Young, Ziri Younsi, Feng Yuan, Ye Fei Yuan, J. Anton Zensus, Guang Yao Zhao, Shan Shan Zhao, G. Principe, M. Giroletti, F. D'Ammando, M. Orienti, H. Abdalla, R. Adam, F. Aharonian, F. Ait Benkhali, E. O. Angüner, C. Arcaro, C. Armand, T. Armstrong, H. Ashkar, M. Backes, V. Baghmanyan, V. Barbosa Martins, A. Barnacka, M. Barnard, Y. Becherini, D. Berge, K. Bernlöhr, B. Bi, M. Böttcher, C. Boisson, J. Bolmont, M. De Bony De Lavergne, M. Breuhaus, F. Brun, P. Brun, M. Bryan, M. Büchele, T. Bulik, T. Bylund, S. Caroff, A. Carosi, S. Casanova, T. Chand, A. Chen, G. Cotter, M. Curyło, J. Damascene Mbarubucyeye, I. D. Davids, J. Davies, C. Deil, J. Devin, P. Dewilt, L. Dirson, A. Djannati-Ataï, A. Dmytriiev, A. Donath, V. Doroshenko, C. Duffy, J. Dyks, K. Egberts, F. Eichhorn, S. Einecke, G. Emery, J. P. Ernenwein, K. Feijen, S. Fegan, A. Fiasson, G. Fichet De Clairfontaine, G. Fontaine, S. Funk, M. Füßling, S. Gabici, Y. A. Gallant, G. Giavitto, L. Giunti, D. Glawion, J. F. Glicenstein, D. Gottschall, M. H. Grondin, J. Hahn, M. Haupt, G. Hermann, J. A. Hinton, W. Hofmann, C. Hoischen, T. L. Holch, M. Holler, M. Hörbe, D. Horns, D. Huber, M. Jamrozy, D. Jankowsky, F. Jankowsky, A. Jardin-Blicq, V. Joshi, I. Jung-Richardt, E. Kasai, M. A. Kastendieck, K. Katarzyński, U. Katz, D. Khangulyan, B. Khélifi, S. Klepser, W. Kluźniak, Nu Komin, R. Konno, K. Kosack, D. Kostunin, M. Kreter, G. Lamanna, A. Lemiere, M. Lemoine-Goumard, J. P. Lenain, C. Levy, T. Lohse, I. Lypova, J. Mackey, J. Majumdar, D. Malyshev, D. Malyshev, V. Marandon, P. Marchegiani, A. Marcowith, A. Mares, G. Martí-Devesa, R. Marx, G. Maurin, P. J. Meintjes, M. Meyer, R. Moderski, M. Mohamed, L. Mohrmann, A. Montanari, C. Moore, P. Morris, E. Moulin, J. Muller, T. Murach, K. Nakashima, A. Nayerhoda, M. De Naurois, H. Ndiyavala, F. Niederwanger, J. Niemiec, L. Oakes, P. O'Brien, H. Odaka, S. Ohm, L. Olivera-Nieto, E. De Ona Wilhelmi, M. Ostrowski, M. Panter, S. Panny, R. D. Parsons, G. Peron, B. Peyaud, Q. Piel, S. Pita, V. Poireau, A. Priyana Noel, D. A. Prokhorov, H. Prokoph, G. Pühlhofer, M. Punch, A. Quirrenbach, R. Rauth, P. 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Ryan, M. Santander, G. H. Sembroski, R. Shang, A. Weinstein, D. A. Williams, T. J. Williamson, Tomoya Hirota, Lang Cui, Kotaro Niinuma, Hyunwook Ro, Nobuyuki Sakai, Satoko Sawada-Satoh, Kiyoaki Wajima, Na Wang, Xiang Liu, Yoshinori Yonekura

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

In 2017, the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) Collaboration succeeded in capturing the first direct image of the center of the M87 galaxy. The asymmetric ring morphology and size are consistent with theoretical expectations for a weakly accreting supermassive black hole of mass ∼6.5 × 109 M o˙. The EHTC also partnered with several international facilities in space and on the ground, to arrange an extensive, quasi-simultaneous multi-wavelength campaign. This Letter presents the results and analysis of this campaign, as well as the multi-wavelength data as a legacy data repository. We captured M87 in a historically low state, and the core flux dominates over HST-1 at high energies, making it possible to combine core flux constraints with the more spatially precise very long baseline interferometry data. We present the most complete simultaneous multi-wavelength spectrum of the active nucleus to date, and discuss the complexity and caveats of combining data from different spatial scales into one broadband spectrum. We apply two heuristic, isotropic leptonic single-zone models to provide insight into the basic source properties, but conclude that a structured jet is necessary to explain M87's spectrum. We can exclude that the simultaneous γ-ray emission is produced via inverse Compton emission in the same region producing the EHT mm-band emission, and further conclude that the γ-rays can only be produced in the inner jets (inward of HST-1) if there are strongly particle-dominated regions. Direct synchrotron emission from accelerated protons and secondaries cannot yet be excluded.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberL11
JournalAstrophysical Journal Letters
Volume911
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 10 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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