In sensor networks applied to monitoring applications, individual sensors may perform preassigned or on-demand tasks, or missions. Data updates (info-pages) may be sent to sensors from a command center, via a timedivision broadcast channel. Sensors are normally put in sleep mode when not actively listening, in order to conserve energy in their batteries. Hence, a schedule is required that specifies when sensors should listen for updates and when they should sleep. The performance of such a schedule is evaluated based on data-related costs and sensor-related costs. Data-related costs reflect the obsoleteness of current sensor data, or the delay while sensors wait for updated instructions. Sensor-related costs reflect the energy that sensors consume while accessing the broadcast channel and while switching between the active and sleeping modes (rebooting). Our goal is a schedule with the minimum total cost. Previous related work has explored data-related costs, but listening cost has been addressed only under the assumption that the rebooting operation is free. This paper formulates a new cost model, which recognizes the cost of sensor rebooting. We derive an optimal schedule for the single-sensor setting. We proceed to consider schedules of multiple sensors; we formulate a mathematical program to find an optimal fractional schedule for this setting and provide a solution to the lower bound. Several heuristics for scheduling multiple sensors are introduced and analyzed, and various tradeoffs among the cost factors are demonstrated.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Information Systems
- Computer Networks and Communications
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering