Pulmonary dysfunction is a significant complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective antimicrobial prophylaxis and treatment strategies have increased the incidence of noninfectious lung injury, which can occur in the early posttransplant period or in the months and years that follow. Late-onset noninfectious pulmonary complications are frequently encountered, but diagnostic criteria and terminology for these disorders can be confusing and therapeutic approaches are suboptimal. As a consequence, inaccurate diagnosis of these conditions may hamper the appropriate data collection, enrollment into clinical trials, and appropriate patient care. The purpose of this review is to clarify the pathogenesis and diagnostic criteria of representative conditions, such as bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia, and to discuss the appropriate diagnostic strategies and treatment options.
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