The combination of busulfan and cyclophosphamide has seldom been employed as a conditioning regimen for patients with lymphoma. Twenty patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma were treated with busulfan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (120 mg/kg) (BU/CY) followed by peripheral blood stem cell rescue in 19 patients or autologous bone marrow in one patient. There were 12 females and eight males, with a median age of 48 years (range 30-65). Four patients had Hodgkin's disease, and 16 patients had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Disease status at the time of BU/CY was: first relapse in 10 patients (four patients with chemosensitive disease and six patients with chemoresistant disease), primary refractory disease in six patients, and more advanced disease in four patients. Excessive treatment-related toxicity was not noted. There were no cases of interstitial pneumonitis, but three cases of veno-occlusive disease occurred. At 2 years, the estimated overall survival and event-free survival are 50% and 33%. We concluded that BU/CY seems to have sufficient antilymphoma activity, is devoid of excessive toxicity and warrants further investigation in this patient population.
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