Ca 2+-dependent GTPase, extra-large G protein 2 (XLG2), promotes activation of DNA-binding protein related to vernalization 1 (RTV1), leading to activation of floral integrator genes and early flowering in Arabidopsis

Jae Bok Heo, Sibum Sung, Sarah Mary Assmann

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21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, play important roles in plant development and cell signaling. In Arabidopsis, in addition to one prototypical G protein αsubunit, GPA1, there are three extra-large G proteins, XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3, of largely unknown function. Each extra-large G (XLG) protein has a C-terminal Gα-like region and a ∼400 amino acid N-terminal extension. Here we show that the three XLG proteins specifically bind and hydrolyze GTP, despite the fact that these plant-specific proteins lack key conserved amino acid residues important for GTP binding and hydrolysis of GTP in mammalian Gα proteins. Moreover, unlike other known Gαproteins, these activities require Ca 2+ instead of Mg 2+ as a cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid library screening and in vitro protein pull-down assays revealed that XLG2 interacts with the nuclear protein RTV1 (related to vernalization 1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that RTV1 binds to DNA in vitro in a non-sequence- specific manner and that GTP-bound XLG2 promotes the DNA binding activity of RTV1. Overexpression of RTV1 results in early flowering. Combined overexpression of XLG2 and RTV1 enhances this early flowering phenotype and elevates expression of the floral pathway integrator genes, FT and SOC1, but does not repress expression of the floral repressor, FLC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that XLG2 increases RTV1 binding to FT and SOC1 promoters. Thus, a Ca 2+-dependent G protein, XLG2, promotes RTV1 DNA binding activity for a subset of floral integrator genes and contributes to floral transition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8242-8253
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume287
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 9 2012

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GTP Phosphohydrolases
DNA-Binding Proteins
Guanosine Triphosphate
GTP-Binding Proteins
Arabidopsis
Genes
Chemical activation
Assays
DNA
Proteins
Cell signaling
Amino Acids
Heterotrimeric GTP-Binding Proteins
Electrophoretic mobility
Plant Proteins
Plant Development
Chromatin Immunoprecipitation
Protein Subunits
Plant Cells
Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

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title = "Ca 2+-dependent GTPase, extra-large G protein 2 (XLG2), promotes activation of DNA-binding protein related to vernalization 1 (RTV1), leading to activation of floral integrator genes and early flowering in Arabidopsis",
abstract = "Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, play important roles in plant development and cell signaling. In Arabidopsis, in addition to one prototypical G protein αsubunit, GPA1, there are three extra-large G proteins, XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3, of largely unknown function. Each extra-large G (XLG) protein has a C-terminal Gα-like region and a ∼400 amino acid N-terminal extension. Here we show that the three XLG proteins specifically bind and hydrolyze GTP, despite the fact that these plant-specific proteins lack key conserved amino acid residues important for GTP binding and hydrolysis of GTP in mammalian Gα proteins. Moreover, unlike other known Gαproteins, these activities require Ca 2+ instead of Mg 2+ as a cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid library screening and in vitro protein pull-down assays revealed that XLG2 interacts with the nuclear protein RTV1 (related to vernalization 1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that RTV1 binds to DNA in vitro in a non-sequence- specific manner and that GTP-bound XLG2 promotes the DNA binding activity of RTV1. Overexpression of RTV1 results in early flowering. Combined overexpression of XLG2 and RTV1 enhances this early flowering phenotype and elevates expression of the floral pathway integrator genes, FT and SOC1, but does not repress expression of the floral repressor, FLC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that XLG2 increases RTV1 binding to FT and SOC1 promoters. Thus, a Ca 2+-dependent G protein, XLG2, promotes RTV1 DNA binding activity for a subset of floral integrator genes and contributes to floral transition.",
author = "Heo, {Jae Bok} and Sibum Sung and Assmann, {Sarah Mary}",
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T1 - Ca 2+-dependent GTPase, extra-large G protein 2 (XLG2), promotes activation of DNA-binding protein related to vernalization 1 (RTV1), leading to activation of floral integrator genes and early flowering in Arabidopsis

AU - Heo, Jae Bok

AU - Sung, Sibum

AU - Assmann, Sarah Mary

PY - 2012/3/9

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N2 - Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, play important roles in plant development and cell signaling. In Arabidopsis, in addition to one prototypical G protein αsubunit, GPA1, there are three extra-large G proteins, XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3, of largely unknown function. Each extra-large G (XLG) protein has a C-terminal Gα-like region and a ∼400 amino acid N-terminal extension. Here we show that the three XLG proteins specifically bind and hydrolyze GTP, despite the fact that these plant-specific proteins lack key conserved amino acid residues important for GTP binding and hydrolysis of GTP in mammalian Gα proteins. Moreover, unlike other known Gαproteins, these activities require Ca 2+ instead of Mg 2+ as a cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid library screening and in vitro protein pull-down assays revealed that XLG2 interacts with the nuclear protein RTV1 (related to vernalization 1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that RTV1 binds to DNA in vitro in a non-sequence- specific manner and that GTP-bound XLG2 promotes the DNA binding activity of RTV1. Overexpression of RTV1 results in early flowering. Combined overexpression of XLG2 and RTV1 enhances this early flowering phenotype and elevates expression of the floral pathway integrator genes, FT and SOC1, but does not repress expression of the floral repressor, FLC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that XLG2 increases RTV1 binding to FT and SOC1 promoters. Thus, a Ca 2+-dependent G protein, XLG2, promotes RTV1 DNA binding activity for a subset of floral integrator genes and contributes to floral transition.

AB - Heterotrimeric G proteins, consisting of Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits, play important roles in plant development and cell signaling. In Arabidopsis, in addition to one prototypical G protein αsubunit, GPA1, there are three extra-large G proteins, XLG1, XLG2, and XLG3, of largely unknown function. Each extra-large G (XLG) protein has a C-terminal Gα-like region and a ∼400 amino acid N-terminal extension. Here we show that the three XLG proteins specifically bind and hydrolyze GTP, despite the fact that these plant-specific proteins lack key conserved amino acid residues important for GTP binding and hydrolysis of GTP in mammalian Gα proteins. Moreover, unlike other known Gαproteins, these activities require Ca 2+ instead of Mg 2+ as a cofactor. Yeast two-hybrid library screening and in vitro protein pull-down assays revealed that XLG2 interacts with the nuclear protein RTV1 (related to vernalization 1). Electrophoretic mobility shift assays show that RTV1 binds to DNA in vitro in a non-sequence- specific manner and that GTP-bound XLG2 promotes the DNA binding activity of RTV1. Overexpression of RTV1 results in early flowering. Combined overexpression of XLG2 and RTV1 enhances this early flowering phenotype and elevates expression of the floral pathway integrator genes, FT and SOC1, but does not repress expression of the floral repressor, FLC. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that XLG2 increases RTV1 binding to FT and SOC1 promoters. Thus, a Ca 2+-dependent G protein, XLG2, promotes RTV1 DNA binding activity for a subset of floral integrator genes and contributes to floral transition.

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