Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries)

Hojong Kim, Dane A. Boysen, Takanari Ouchi, Donald R. Sadoway

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm-2, the calcium-bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98%. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca 11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode-electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)239-248
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Power Sources
Volume241
DOIs
StatePublished - May 27 2013

Fingerprint

Bismuth
energy storage
liquid metals
Liquid metals
Energy storage
bismuth
electric batteries
calcium
Calcium
molten salt electrolytes
Electrodes
electrodes
Electrolytes
Molten materials
Salts
barium
intermetallics
Barium
Intermetallics
bismuth alloys

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Kim, Hojong ; Boysen, Dane A. ; Ouchi, Takanari ; Sadoway, Donald R. / Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries). In: Journal of Power Sources. 2013 ; Vol. 241. pp. 239-248.
@article{924f565da3bc4016aaecfe4acce2c7f7,
title = "Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries)",
abstract = "Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm-2, the calcium-bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98{\%}. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca 11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode-electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity.",
author = "Hojong Kim and Boysen, {Dane A.} and Takanari Ouchi and Sadoway, {Donald R.}",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
day = "27",
doi = "10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.052",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "241",
pages = "239--248",
journal = "Journal of Power Sources",
issn = "0378-7753",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries). / Kim, Hojong; Boysen, Dane A.; Ouchi, Takanari; Sadoway, Donald R.

In: Journal of Power Sources, Vol. 241, 27.05.2013, p. 239-248.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Calcium-bismuth electrodes for large-scale energy storage (liquid metal batteries)

AU - Kim, Hojong

AU - Boysen, Dane A.

AU - Ouchi, Takanari

AU - Sadoway, Donald R.

PY - 2013/5/27

Y1 - 2013/5/27

N2 - Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm-2, the calcium-bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98%. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca 11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode-electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity.

AB - Calcium is an attractive electrode material for use in grid-scale electrochemical energy storage due to its low electronegativity, earth abundance, and low cost. The feasibility of combining a liquid Ca-Bi positive electrode with a molten salt electrolyte for use in liquid metal batteries at 500-700 C was investigated. Exhibiting excellent reversibility up to current densities of 200 mA cm-2, the calcium-bismuth liquid alloy system is a promising positive electrode candidate for liquid metal batteries. The measurement of low self-discharge current suggests that the solubility of calcium metal in molten salt electrolytes can be sufficiently suppressed to yield high coulombic efficiencies >98%. The mechanisms giving rise to Ca-Bi electrode overpotentials were investigated in terms of associated charge transfer and mass transport resistances. The formation of low density Ca 11Bi10 intermetallics at the electrode-electrolyte interface limited the calcium deposition rate capability of the electrodes; however, the co-deposition of barium into bismuth from barium-containing molten salts suppressed Ca-Bi intermetallic formation thereby improving the discharge capacity.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84877948232&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84877948232&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.052

DO - 10.1016/j.jpowsour.2013.04.052

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84877948232

VL - 241

SP - 239

EP - 248

JO - Journal of Power Sources

JF - Journal of Power Sources

SN - 0378-7753

ER -