We hypothesized that skeletal muscle perfusion is impaired in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) patients compared to healthy controls and that perfusion patterns exhibit marked differences across five leg muscle compartments including the anterior muscle group (AM), lateral muscle group (LM), deep posterior muscle group (DM), soleus (SM), and the gastrocnemius muscle (GM). A total of 40 individuals (26 PAD patients and 14 healthy controls) underwent contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CE-MRI) utilizing a reactive hyperemia protocol. Muscle perfusion maps were developed for AM, LM, DM, SM, and GM. Perfusion maps were analyzed over the course of 2 min, starting at local pre-contrast arrival, to study early-to-intermediate gadolinium enhancement. PAD patients had a higher fraction of hypointense voxels at pre-contrast arrival for all five muscle compartments compared with healthy controls (p < 0.0005). Among PAD patients, the fraction of hypointense voxels of the AM, LM, and GM were inversely correlated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR; r = −0.509, p = 0.008; r = −0.441, p = 0.024; and r = −0.431, p = 0.028, respectively). CE-MRI-based skeletal leg muscle perfusion is markedly reduced in PAD patients compared with healthy controls and shows heterogeneous patterns across calf muscle compartments.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Biomedical Engineering
- Computer Science Applications