Purpose: During the last 10 years we attempted to treat most children presenting with a ureterocele with a single definitive operative procedure. We reviewed the surgical results to assess the success of the preoperative plan in achieving this outcome. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records and diagnostic studies of all children who underwent surgery for a ureterocele during the last 10 years at our institution. The intent of the surgeon as to whether the procedure was intended to be definitive was stated in the clinic notes in all cases. Results: Surgery for a ureterocele was performed in 38 children during the study period. Transurethral incision was used in 7 patients and, although it was intended to be definitive in 2, all 7 required subsequent surgery for vesicoureteral reflux. Isolated upper tract surgery was performed with intent to cure in 20 of 21 patients including upper pole heminephrectomy in 17 and upper to lower ureteroureterostomy in 3. Of the 20 patients initially treated with this simplified approach 17 (85%) did not require subsequent surgery for ureterocele and 12 had vesicoureteral reflux preoperatively, which persisted in 2 (10%) and required subsequent surgery in 3 (15%). Total reconstruction of the ureterocele was performed in 10 patients and 1 of whom required subsequent surgery. We achieved resolution of all problematic aspects of the ureterocele with a single procedure in 26 of 32 patients (81%). Conclusions: A single procedure that definitively treats all problems of a ureterocele can be selected in more than three-quarters of patients. Transurethral incision was unsuccessful at definitively treating these patients in our experience. An isolated upper tract procedure was successful in patients with no or mild associated vesicoureteral reflux. We think that upper tract surgery should be the procedure of choice in this subset of patients, as it usually resolves the problem and does not subject the patient to the potential morbidities of bladder surgery. Although total reconstruction is a more formidable procedure, it can be performed safely with excellent results.
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