The Hopelessness Model (Abramson, Alloy, & Metalsky,) and response style theory (Nolen-Hoeksema, Girgus, & Seligman,) have been integrated in various ways, but these integrations have not been compared. German college students (N = 311, mean age = 23.27 years, SD = 6.57 years, 80% female) rated their depressive symptoms, negative inferences, and rumination 3 times. Findings supported an integrated model whereby individual inferences predict and interact with the rumination subtype brooding to affect depressive symptoms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Applied Psychology