The use of cardiopulmonary bypass, deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest has decreased the risks of hemorrhage, tumor embolization, incomplete thrombus resection, and warm hepatic and renal ischemia associated with resection of renal cell carcinoma extending into the inferior vena cava above the hepatic veins. Patients about to undergo this operation frequently have significant coronary artery and carotid artery disease, and are at risk for perioperative myocardial infarction and stroke. Preoperative evaluation of the coronary artery and carotid artery circulation by coronary angiography, duplex carotid artery scan and digital subtraction carotid angiography is recommended. Depending upon the severity and location of the cardiovascular disease a sequential or simultaneous operation may be performed. This surgical approach can be used in selected patients to facilitate complete tumor thrombectomy with a low operative risk.
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