Carpal Ligament Injuries, Pathomechanics, and Classification

Daniel J. Lee, John C. Elfar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

17 Citations (SciVal)


Carpal instability is a complex array of maladaptive and posttraumatic conditions that lead to the inability of the wrist to maintain anatomic relationships under normal loads. Many different classification schemes have evolved to explain the mechanistic evolution and pathophysiology of carpal instability, including 2 of the most common malalignment patterns: volar intercalated segment instability and the more common dorsal intercalated segment instability. Recent classifications emphasize the relationships within and between the rows of carpal bones. Future research is likely to unify the disparate paradigms used to describe wrist instability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-398
Number of pages10
JournalHand Clinics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2015

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Surgery
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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