Epithelial tissues covering the external and internal surface of a body are constantly under physical, chemical or biological assaults. To protect the epithelial tissues and maintain their homeostasis, multiple layers of immune defense mechanisms are required. Besides the epithelial tissue-resident immune cells that provide the first line of defense, circulating immune cells are also recruited into the local tissues in response to challenges. Chemokines and chemokine receptors regulate tissue-specific migration, maintenance and functions of immune cells. Among them, chemokine receptor CCR10 and its ligands chemokines CCL27 and CCL28 are uniquely involved in the epithelial immunity. CCL27 is expressed predominantly in the skin by keratinocytes while CCL28 is expressed by epithelial cells of various mucosal tissues. CCR10 is expressed by various subsets of innate-like T cells that are programmed to localize to the skin during their developmental processes in the thymus. Circulating T cells might be imprinted by skin-associated antigen- presenting cells to express CCR10 for their recruitment to the skin during the local immune response. On the other hand, IgA antibody-producing B cells generated in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues express CCR10 for their migration and maintenance at mucosal sites. Increasing evidence also found that CCR10/ligands are involved in regulation of other immune cells in epithelial immunity and are frequently exploited by epithelium-localizing or -originated cancer cells for their survival, proliferation and evasion from immune surveillance. Herein, we review current knowledge on roles of CCR10/ligands in regulation of epithelial immunity and diseases and speculate on related important questions worth further investigation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Drug Discovery
- Cell Biology