Central Olfactory Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Functional MRI Study

Megha M. Vasavada, Brittany Martinez, Jianli Wang, Paul J. Eslinger, David J. Gill, Xiaoyu Sun, Prasanna Karunanayaka, Qing X. Yang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Olfactory deficits are present in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) patients. However, whether these deficits are due to dysfunction of the central or peripheral olfactory nervous system remains uncertain. This question is fundamentally important for developing imaging biomarkers for AD using olfactory testing. Objective: This study sought to use olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further demonstrate the involvement of the central olfactory system in olfactory deficits in MCI and AD. Methods: We investigated the central olfactory system in 27 cognitively normal controls (CN), 21 MCI, and 15 AD subjects using olfactory fMRI with an odor-visual association paradigm during which a visual cue was paired with lavender odorant (odor condition) or odorless air (no-odor condition). Results: The CN subjects had significantly greater activated volume in the primary olfactory cortex during both the odor and no-odor conditions compared to either the MCI or AD groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the odor and no-odor conditions within each group. No-odor condition activation in AD and MCI correlated with the cognitive and olfactory assessments. Conclusion: The no-odor condition, allowing investigation of activation patterns when the peripheral olfactory system was not directly involved, elicited the same functional response as the odor condition for each of the three groups. Thus, the olfactory activation deficits present in AD and MCI patients are most likely caused by degeneration of the central olfactory nervous system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)359-368
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Alzheimer's Disease
Volume59
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2017

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Alzheimer Disease
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Odorants
Cognitive Dysfunction
Lavandula
Peripheral Nervous System
Cues
Central Nervous System
Biomarkers
Air

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "Central Olfactory Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Functional MRI Study",
abstract = "Background: Olfactory deficits are present in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) patients. However, whether these deficits are due to dysfunction of the central or peripheral olfactory nervous system remains uncertain. This question is fundamentally important for developing imaging biomarkers for AD using olfactory testing. Objective: This study sought to use olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further demonstrate the involvement of the central olfactory system in olfactory deficits in MCI and AD. Methods: We investigated the central olfactory system in 27 cognitively normal controls (CN), 21 MCI, and 15 AD subjects using olfactory fMRI with an odor-visual association paradigm during which a visual cue was paired with lavender odorant (odor condition) or odorless air (no-odor condition). Results: The CN subjects had significantly greater activated volume in the primary olfactory cortex during both the odor and no-odor conditions compared to either the MCI or AD groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the odor and no-odor conditions within each group. No-odor condition activation in AD and MCI correlated with the cognitive and olfactory assessments. Conclusion: The no-odor condition, allowing investigation of activation patterns when the peripheral olfactory system was not directly involved, elicited the same functional response as the odor condition for each of the three groups. Thus, the olfactory activation deficits present in AD and MCI patients are most likely caused by degeneration of the central olfactory nervous system.",
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Central Olfactory Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment : A Functional MRI Study. / Vasavada, Megha M.; Martinez, Brittany; Wang, Jianli; Eslinger, Paul J.; Gill, David J.; Sun, Xiaoyu; Karunanayaka, Prasanna; Yang, Qing X.

In: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease, Vol. 59, No. 1, 01.01.2017, p. 359-368.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Central Olfactory Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease and Mild Cognitive Impairment

T2 - A Functional MRI Study

AU - Vasavada, Megha M.

AU - Martinez, Brittany

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AU - Eslinger, Paul J.

AU - Gill, David J.

AU - Sun, Xiaoyu

AU - Karunanayaka, Prasanna

AU - Yang, Qing X.

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Y1 - 2017/1/1

N2 - Background: Olfactory deficits are present in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) patients. However, whether these deficits are due to dysfunction of the central or peripheral olfactory nervous system remains uncertain. This question is fundamentally important for developing imaging biomarkers for AD using olfactory testing. Objective: This study sought to use olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further demonstrate the involvement of the central olfactory system in olfactory deficits in MCI and AD. Methods: We investigated the central olfactory system in 27 cognitively normal controls (CN), 21 MCI, and 15 AD subjects using olfactory fMRI with an odor-visual association paradigm during which a visual cue was paired with lavender odorant (odor condition) or odorless air (no-odor condition). Results: The CN subjects had significantly greater activated volume in the primary olfactory cortex during both the odor and no-odor conditions compared to either the MCI or AD groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the odor and no-odor conditions within each group. No-odor condition activation in AD and MCI correlated with the cognitive and olfactory assessments. Conclusion: The no-odor condition, allowing investigation of activation patterns when the peripheral olfactory system was not directly involved, elicited the same functional response as the odor condition for each of the three groups. Thus, the olfactory activation deficits present in AD and MCI patients are most likely caused by degeneration of the central olfactory nervous system.

AB - Background: Olfactory deficits are present in early Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitively impaired (MCI) patients. However, whether these deficits are due to dysfunction of the central or peripheral olfactory nervous system remains uncertain. This question is fundamentally important for developing imaging biomarkers for AD using olfactory testing. Objective: This study sought to use olfactory functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to further demonstrate the involvement of the central olfactory system in olfactory deficits in MCI and AD. Methods: We investigated the central olfactory system in 27 cognitively normal controls (CN), 21 MCI, and 15 AD subjects using olfactory fMRI with an odor-visual association paradigm during which a visual cue was paired with lavender odorant (odor condition) or odorless air (no-odor condition). Results: The CN subjects had significantly greater activated volume in the primary olfactory cortex during both the odor and no-odor conditions compared to either the MCI or AD groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were observed between the odor and no-odor conditions within each group. No-odor condition activation in AD and MCI correlated with the cognitive and olfactory assessments. Conclusion: The no-odor condition, allowing investigation of activation patterns when the peripheral olfactory system was not directly involved, elicited the same functional response as the odor condition for each of the three groups. Thus, the olfactory activation deficits present in AD and MCI patients are most likely caused by degeneration of the central olfactory nervous system.

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