Characteristics of Adult Cigarette Smokers Who "Relight" and the Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents

Sophia I. Allen, Emily Wasserman, Susan Veldheer, Jessica Yingst, Shari Hrabovsky, Jiangang (Jason) Liao, Nicolle M. Krebs, Kimberly Horn, Lisa Reinhart, Jennifer Modesto, Kayla Putt, A. Eden Evins, Joshua Muscat, John Richie, Jonathan Foulds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: About half of smokers relight their cigarette, a habit that is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis and possibly lung cancer. Little is known about the characteristics of smokers who relight and their dependence on nicotine. It is unknown whether relighting affects exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. This study examined the characteristics of relighters of usual brand cigarettes and whether relighting affects exposure to selected tobacco smoke constituents. METHODS: We explored relighting status and frequency, using baseline data from 248 adult smokers participating in studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes in relation to demographic and cigarette characteristics, smoking behaviors, nicotine dependence, biomarkers of exposure (exhaled carbon monoxide, blood cotinine), and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione). RESULTS: 69.4% (n = 172) of subjects reported relighting, and they relit an average of five cigarettes out of 20. Both relighters and non-relighters smoked a mean of 20 cigarettes per day (p = .6). Relighting was significantly associated with higher nicotine dependence, use of longer rod cigarettes, older age, lower income, and unemployment. There were no significant associations between relighting and blood cotinine, exhaled carbon monoxide or measures of oxidized/reduced blood glutathione. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of subjects were relighters, who had higher levels of nicotine dependence than non-relighters. Relighters had similar levels of plasma cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide to non-relighters. IMPLICATIONS: No study has compared the cigarette characteristics and biomarkers of exposure of adult cigarette smokers who relight with those who do not. Relighting behavior was common in our sample and was associated with low income, not currently working, higher nicotine dependence, cigarette rod length, daily cigarette use years, and a lifetime history of depressed mood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1206-1212
Number of pages7
JournalNicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Volume21
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 19 2019

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Smoke
Tobacco Products
Tobacco
Tobacco Use Disorder
Cotinine
Carbon Monoxide
Biomarkers
Glutathione
Unemployment
Glutathione Disulfide
Chronic Bronchitis
Nicotine
Habits
Lung Neoplasms
Oxidative Stress
Smoking
Demography

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

@article{6a0076f44a85405b83a555fd32957979,
title = "Characteristics of Adult Cigarette Smokers Who {"}Relight{"} and the Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents",
abstract = "INTRODUCTION: About half of smokers relight their cigarette, a habit that is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis and possibly lung cancer. Little is known about the characteristics of smokers who relight and their dependence on nicotine. It is unknown whether relighting affects exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. This study examined the characteristics of relighters of usual brand cigarettes and whether relighting affects exposure to selected tobacco smoke constituents. METHODS: We explored relighting status and frequency, using baseline data from 248 adult smokers participating in studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes in relation to demographic and cigarette characteristics, smoking behaviors, nicotine dependence, biomarkers of exposure (exhaled carbon monoxide, blood cotinine), and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione). RESULTS: 69.4{\%} (n = 172) of subjects reported relighting, and they relit an average of five cigarettes out of 20. Both relighters and non-relighters smoked a mean of 20 cigarettes per day (p = .6). Relighting was significantly associated with higher nicotine dependence, use of longer rod cigarettes, older age, lower income, and unemployment. There were no significant associations between relighting and blood cotinine, exhaled carbon monoxide or measures of oxidized/reduced blood glutathione. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of subjects were relighters, who had higher levels of nicotine dependence than non-relighters. Relighters had similar levels of plasma cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide to non-relighters. IMPLICATIONS: No study has compared the cigarette characteristics and biomarkers of exposure of adult cigarette smokers who relight with those who do not. Relighting behavior was common in our sample and was associated with low income, not currently working, higher nicotine dependence, cigarette rod length, daily cigarette use years, and a lifetime history of depressed mood.",
author = "Allen, {Sophia I.} and Emily Wasserman and Susan Veldheer and Jessica Yingst and Shari Hrabovsky and Liao, {Jiangang (Jason)} and Krebs, {Nicolle M.} and Kimberly Horn and Lisa Reinhart and Jennifer Modesto and Kayla Putt and Evins, {A. Eden} and Joshua Muscat and John Richie and Jonathan Foulds",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
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doi = "10.1093/ntr/nty138",
language = "English (US)",
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journal = "Nicotine and Tobacco Research",
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Characteristics of Adult Cigarette Smokers Who "Relight" and the Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents. / Allen, Sophia I.; Wasserman, Emily; Veldheer, Susan; Yingst, Jessica; Hrabovsky, Shari; Liao, Jiangang (Jason); Krebs, Nicolle M.; Horn, Kimberly; Reinhart, Lisa; Modesto, Jennifer; Putt, Kayla; Evins, A. Eden; Muscat, Joshua; Richie, John; Foulds, Jonathan.

In: Nicotine & tobacco research : official journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco, Vol. 21, No. 9, 19.08.2019, p. 1206-1212.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Characteristics of Adult Cigarette Smokers Who "Relight" and the Effects of Exposure to Tobacco Smoke Constituents

AU - Allen, Sophia I.

AU - Wasserman, Emily

AU - Veldheer, Susan

AU - Yingst, Jessica

AU - Hrabovsky, Shari

AU - Liao, Jiangang (Jason)

AU - Krebs, Nicolle M.

AU - Horn, Kimberly

AU - Reinhart, Lisa

AU - Modesto, Jennifer

AU - Putt, Kayla

AU - Evins, A. Eden

AU - Muscat, Joshua

AU - Richie, John

AU - Foulds, Jonathan

PY - 2019/8/19

Y1 - 2019/8/19

N2 - INTRODUCTION: About half of smokers relight their cigarette, a habit that is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis and possibly lung cancer. Little is known about the characteristics of smokers who relight and their dependence on nicotine. It is unknown whether relighting affects exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. This study examined the characteristics of relighters of usual brand cigarettes and whether relighting affects exposure to selected tobacco smoke constituents. METHODS: We explored relighting status and frequency, using baseline data from 248 adult smokers participating in studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes in relation to demographic and cigarette characteristics, smoking behaviors, nicotine dependence, biomarkers of exposure (exhaled carbon monoxide, blood cotinine), and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione). RESULTS: 69.4% (n = 172) of subjects reported relighting, and they relit an average of five cigarettes out of 20. Both relighters and non-relighters smoked a mean of 20 cigarettes per day (p = .6). Relighting was significantly associated with higher nicotine dependence, use of longer rod cigarettes, older age, lower income, and unemployment. There were no significant associations between relighting and blood cotinine, exhaled carbon monoxide or measures of oxidized/reduced blood glutathione. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of subjects were relighters, who had higher levels of nicotine dependence than non-relighters. Relighters had similar levels of plasma cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide to non-relighters. IMPLICATIONS: No study has compared the cigarette characteristics and biomarkers of exposure of adult cigarette smokers who relight with those who do not. Relighting behavior was common in our sample and was associated with low income, not currently working, higher nicotine dependence, cigarette rod length, daily cigarette use years, and a lifetime history of depressed mood.

AB - INTRODUCTION: About half of smokers relight their cigarette, a habit that is a risk factor for chronic bronchitis and possibly lung cancer. Little is known about the characteristics of smokers who relight and their dependence on nicotine. It is unknown whether relighting affects exposure to tobacco smoke constituents. This study examined the characteristics of relighters of usual brand cigarettes and whether relighting affects exposure to selected tobacco smoke constituents. METHODS: We explored relighting status and frequency, using baseline data from 248 adult smokers participating in studies of reduced nicotine cigarettes in relation to demographic and cigarette characteristics, smoking behaviors, nicotine dependence, biomarkers of exposure (exhaled carbon monoxide, blood cotinine), and biomarkers of oxidative stress (ratio of oxidized/reduced glutathione). RESULTS: 69.4% (n = 172) of subjects reported relighting, and they relit an average of five cigarettes out of 20. Both relighters and non-relighters smoked a mean of 20 cigarettes per day (p = .6). Relighting was significantly associated with higher nicotine dependence, use of longer rod cigarettes, older age, lower income, and unemployment. There were no significant associations between relighting and blood cotinine, exhaled carbon monoxide or measures of oxidized/reduced blood glutathione. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of subjects were relighters, who had higher levels of nicotine dependence than non-relighters. Relighters had similar levels of plasma cotinine and exhaled carbon monoxide to non-relighters. IMPLICATIONS: No study has compared the cigarette characteristics and biomarkers of exposure of adult cigarette smokers who relight with those who do not. Relighting behavior was common in our sample and was associated with low income, not currently working, higher nicotine dependence, cigarette rod length, daily cigarette use years, and a lifetime history of depressed mood.

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U2 - 10.1093/ntr/nty138

DO - 10.1093/ntr/nty138

M3 - Article

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SP - 1206

EP - 1212

JO - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

JF - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

SN - 1462-2203

IS - 9

ER -