Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background

C. Pagani, D. C. Morris, J. Racusin, D. Grupe, L. Vetere, M. Stroh, Abraham David Falcone, Jamie A. Kennea, David Nelson Burrows, John Andrew Nousek, A. F. Abbey, L. Angelini, A. P. Beardmore, S. Campana, M. Capalbi, G. Chincarini, O. Citterio, G. Cusumano, P. Giommi, O. GodetJ. E. Hill, V. LaParola, V. Mangano, T. Mineo, A. Moretti, J. P. Osborne, K. L. Page, M. Perri, P. Romano, G. Tagliaferri, F. Tamburelli

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has successfully operated since the spacecraft launch on 20 November 2004, automatically locating GRB afterglows, measuring their spectra and lightcurves and performing observations of high-energy sources. In this work we investigate the properties of the instrumental background, focusing on its dynamic behavior on both long and short timescales. The operational temperature of the CCD is the main factor that influences the XRT background level. After the failure of the Swift active on-board temperature control system, the XRT detector now operates at a temperature range between -75C and -45C thanks to a passive cooling Heat Rejection System. We report on the long-term effects on the background caused by radiation, consisting mainly of proton irradiation in Swift's low Earth orbit and on the short-term effects of transits through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which expose the detector to periods of intense proton flux. We have determined the fraction of the detector background that is due to the internal, instrumental background and the part that is due to unresolved astrophysical sources (the cosmic X-ray background) by investigating the degree of vignetting of the measured background and comparing it to the expected value from calibration data.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007
EventUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Aug 26 2007Aug 27 2007

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Volume6686
ISSN (Print)0277-786X

Other

OtherUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV
CountryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA
Period8/26/078/27/07

Fingerprint

X-ray Telescopes
Telescopes
telescopes
X rays
Detectors
detectors
x rays
vignetting
Proton irradiation
long term effects
Detector
proton irradiation
temperature control
low Earth orbits
energy sources
transit
afterglows
gamma ray bursts
Charge coupled devices
Temperature control

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Cite this

Pagani, C., Morris, D. C., Racusin, J., Grupe, D., Vetere, L., Stroh, M., ... Tamburelli, F. (2007). Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background. In UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV [668609] (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 6686). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.734398
Pagani, C. ; Morris, D. C. ; Racusin, J. ; Grupe, D. ; Vetere, L. ; Stroh, M. ; Falcone, Abraham David ; Kennea, Jamie A. ; Burrows, David Nelson ; Nousek, John Andrew ; Abbey, A. F. ; Angelini, L. ; Beardmore, A. P. ; Campana, S. ; Capalbi, M. ; Chincarini, G. ; Citterio, O. ; Cusumano, G. ; Giommi, P. ; Godet, O. ; Hill, J. E. ; LaParola, V. ; Mangano, V. ; Mineo, T. ; Moretti, A. ; Osborne, J. P. ; Page, K. L. ; Perri, M. ; Romano, P. ; Tagliaferri, G. ; Tamburelli, F. / Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background. UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV. 2007. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering).
@inproceedings{77540edf86dd44bb8dd9df53efa488fc,
title = "Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background",
abstract = "The X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has successfully operated since the spacecraft launch on 20 November 2004, automatically locating GRB afterglows, measuring their spectra and lightcurves and performing observations of high-energy sources. In this work we investigate the properties of the instrumental background, focusing on its dynamic behavior on both long and short timescales. The operational temperature of the CCD is the main factor that influences the XRT background level. After the failure of the Swift active on-board temperature control system, the XRT detector now operates at a temperature range between -75C and -45C thanks to a passive cooling Heat Rejection System. We report on the long-term effects on the background caused by radiation, consisting mainly of proton irradiation in Swift's low Earth orbit and on the short-term effects of transits through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which expose the detector to periods of intense proton flux. We have determined the fraction of the detector background that is due to the internal, instrumental background and the part that is due to unresolved astrophysical sources (the cosmic X-ray background) by investigating the degree of vignetting of the measured background and comparing it to the expected value from calibration data.",
author = "C. Pagani and Morris, {D. C.} and J. Racusin and D. Grupe and L. Vetere and M. Stroh and Falcone, {Abraham David} and Kennea, {Jamie A.} and Burrows, {David Nelson} and Nousek, {John Andrew} and Abbey, {A. F.} and L. Angelini and Beardmore, {A. P.} and S. Campana and M. Capalbi and G. Chincarini and O. Citterio and G. Cusumano and P. Giommi and O. Godet and Hill, {J. E.} and V. LaParola and V. Mangano and T. Mineo and A. Moretti and Osborne, {J. P.} and Page, {K. L.} and M. Perri and P. Romano and G. Tagliaferri and F. Tamburelli",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1117/12.734398",
language = "English (US)",
isbn = "9780819468345",
series = "Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering",
booktitle = "UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV",

}

Pagani, C, Morris, DC, Racusin, J, Grupe, D, Vetere, L, Stroh, M, Falcone, AD, Kennea, JA, Burrows, DN, Nousek, JA, Abbey, AF, Angelini, L, Beardmore, AP, Campana, S, Capalbi, M, Chincarini, G, Citterio, O, Cusumano, G, Giommi, P, Godet, O, Hill, JE, LaParola, V, Mangano, V, Mineo, T, Moretti, A, Osborne, JP, Page, KL, Perri, M, Romano, P, Tagliaferri, G & Tamburelli, F 2007, Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background. in UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV., 668609, Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering, vol. 6686, UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV, San Diego, CA, United States, 8/26/07. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.734398

Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background. / Pagani, C.; Morris, D. C.; Racusin, J.; Grupe, D.; Vetere, L.; Stroh, M.; Falcone, Abraham David; Kennea, Jamie A.; Burrows, David Nelson; Nousek, John Andrew; Abbey, A. F.; Angelini, L.; Beardmore, A. P.; Campana, S.; Capalbi, M.; Chincarini, G.; Citterio, O.; Cusumano, G.; Giommi, P.; Godet, O.; Hill, J. E.; LaParola, V.; Mangano, V.; Mineo, T.; Moretti, A.; Osborne, J. P.; Page, K. L.; Perri, M.; Romano, P.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tamburelli, F.

UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV. 2007. 668609 (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering; Vol. 6686).

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

TY - GEN

T1 - Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background

AU - Pagani, C.

AU - Morris, D. C.

AU - Racusin, J.

AU - Grupe, D.

AU - Vetere, L.

AU - Stroh, M.

AU - Falcone, Abraham David

AU - Kennea, Jamie A.

AU - Burrows, David Nelson

AU - Nousek, John Andrew

AU - Abbey, A. F.

AU - Angelini, L.

AU - Beardmore, A. P.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Capalbi, M.

AU - Chincarini, G.

AU - Citterio, O.

AU - Cusumano, G.

AU - Giommi, P.

AU - Godet, O.

AU - Hill, J. E.

AU - LaParola, V.

AU - Mangano, V.

AU - Mineo, T.

AU - Moretti, A.

AU - Osborne, J. P.

AU - Page, K. L.

AU - Perri, M.

AU - Romano, P.

AU - Tagliaferri, G.

AU - Tamburelli, F.

PY - 2007/12/1

Y1 - 2007/12/1

N2 - The X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has successfully operated since the spacecraft launch on 20 November 2004, automatically locating GRB afterglows, measuring their spectra and lightcurves and performing observations of high-energy sources. In this work we investigate the properties of the instrumental background, focusing on its dynamic behavior on both long and short timescales. The operational temperature of the CCD is the main factor that influences the XRT background level. After the failure of the Swift active on-board temperature control system, the XRT detector now operates at a temperature range between -75C and -45C thanks to a passive cooling Heat Rejection System. We report on the long-term effects on the background caused by radiation, consisting mainly of proton irradiation in Swift's low Earth orbit and on the short-term effects of transits through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which expose the detector to periods of intense proton flux. We have determined the fraction of the detector background that is due to the internal, instrumental background and the part that is due to unresolved astrophysical sources (the cosmic X-ray background) by investigating the degree of vignetting of the measured background and comparing it to the expected value from calibration data.

AB - The X-ray telescope (XRT) on board the Swift Gamma Ray Burst Explorer has successfully operated since the spacecraft launch on 20 November 2004, automatically locating GRB afterglows, measuring their spectra and lightcurves and performing observations of high-energy sources. In this work we investigate the properties of the instrumental background, focusing on its dynamic behavior on both long and short timescales. The operational temperature of the CCD is the main factor that influences the XRT background level. After the failure of the Swift active on-board temperature control system, the XRT detector now operates at a temperature range between -75C and -45C thanks to a passive cooling Heat Rejection System. We report on the long-term effects on the background caused by radiation, consisting mainly of proton irradiation in Swift's low Earth orbit and on the short-term effects of transits through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA), which expose the detector to periods of intense proton flux. We have determined the fraction of the detector background that is due to the internal, instrumental background and the part that is due to unresolved astrophysical sources (the cosmic X-ray background) by investigating the degree of vignetting of the measured background and comparing it to the expected value from calibration data.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=42249097928&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=42249097928&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1117/12.734398

DO - 10.1117/12.734398

M3 - Conference contribution

AN - SCOPUS:42249097928

SN - 9780819468345

T3 - Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering

BT - UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV

ER -

Pagani C, Morris DC, Racusin J, Grupe D, Vetere L, Stroh M et al. Characterization and evolution of the Swift X-ray Telescope instrumental background. In UV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Space Instrumentation for Astronomy XV. 2007. 668609. (Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering). https://doi.org/10.1117/12.734398