The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of non-enzymatic glycosylation with galactose, lactose, and 10 kDa dextran on the rheological properties of sodium caseinate. To promote the formation of covalent complexes, the reaction was done in solid state (aw = 0.67), pH 7.0 (0.1 M sodium phosphate buffer), and temperature set at 50 and 60 °C. The progress of Maillard reaction was indirectly traced by measuring the formation of the Amadori compound, through furosine (2-furoylmethyl-lysine) analysis, and brown polymers, and the resulting glycoconjugates were characterized by LC/ESI-MS and SEC. Results showed a higher reactivity of galactose than lactose and dextran to form the glycoconjugates, due to its smaller molecular weight. Glycation with galactose and lactose increased the viscosity of caseinate and also altered its flow characteristics from Newtonian to shear-thinning. Oscillatory testing showed a higher elastic modulus (G′) in glycoconjugates when compared to non-glycated caseinate, especially with galactose, where a gel-like behaviour was observed after long incubation times. Glycation with dextran did not produce substantial improvements in the rheological properties of caseinate, probably due to the limited extent of the reaction. Our results show that by controlling the rate and extent of the Maillard reaction is a technologically feasible operation to improve the viscosity and gelling properties of sodium caseinate-based ingredients.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science
- Chemical Engineering(all)