Characterization of nafion® membranes by transmission electron microscopy

T. Xue, J. S. Trent, Kwadwo Asare Osseo-Asare

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Abstract

Nafion® membranes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both solution casting and positive staining techniques were employed. The staining of solution-cast Nafion® membrane by RuO4 vapor led to good image contrast so that the ionic cluster domains in the membrane could be clearly observed. The TEM micrographs indicated the presence of three phases: ionic cluster phase, an organic matrix phase and an interfacial phase. The spherical ionic clusters were surrounded by the interracial phase and were uniformly distributed across the membrane; the average size of the clusters was found to be 25 to 50 Å. The staining mechanism was investigated by analyzing the ruthenium content of stained membranes by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and by comparing the FTIR spectra of stained and unstained membranes. It was concluded that the staining reaction involved the oxidation of absorbed water by RuO4 vapor to give RuO2 microparticles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-271
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Membrane Science
Volume45
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1989

Fingerprint

Transmission Electron Microscopy
staining
membranes
Transmission electron microscopy
Membranes
transmission electron microscopy
Staining and Labeling
Vapors
vapors
X-Ray Emission Spectrometry
Ruthenium
Steam
microparticles
image contrast
Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
ruthenium
perfluorosulfonic acid
casts
Casting
Oxidation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Filtration and Separation
  • Polymers and Plastics

Cite this

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title = "Characterization of nafion{\circledR} membranes by transmission electron microscopy",
abstract = "Nafion{\circledR} membranes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both solution casting and positive staining techniques were employed. The staining of solution-cast Nafion{\circledR} membrane by RuO4 vapor led to good image contrast so that the ionic cluster domains in the membrane could be clearly observed. The TEM micrographs indicated the presence of three phases: ionic cluster phase, an organic matrix phase and an interfacial phase. The spherical ionic clusters were surrounded by the interracial phase and were uniformly distributed across the membrane; the average size of the clusters was found to be 25 to 50 {\AA}. The staining mechanism was investigated by analyzing the ruthenium content of stained membranes by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and by comparing the FTIR spectra of stained and unstained membranes. It was concluded that the staining reaction involved the oxidation of absorbed water by RuO4 vapor to give RuO2 microparticles.",
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Characterization of nafion® membranes by transmission electron microscopy. / Xue, T.; Trent, J. S.; Osseo-Asare, Kwadwo Asare.

In: Journal of Membrane Science, Vol. 45, No. 3, 01.01.1989, p. 261-271.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Xue, T.

AU - Trent, J. S.

AU - Osseo-Asare, Kwadwo Asare

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AB - Nafion® membranes were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Both solution casting and positive staining techniques were employed. The staining of solution-cast Nafion® membrane by RuO4 vapor led to good image contrast so that the ionic cluster domains in the membrane could be clearly observed. The TEM micrographs indicated the presence of three phases: ionic cluster phase, an organic matrix phase and an interfacial phase. The spherical ionic clusters were surrounded by the interracial phase and were uniformly distributed across the membrane; the average size of the clusters was found to be 25 to 50 Å. The staining mechanism was investigated by analyzing the ruthenium content of stained membranes by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and by comparing the FTIR spectra of stained and unstained membranes. It was concluded that the staining reaction involved the oxidation of absorbed water by RuO4 vapor to give RuO2 microparticles.

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