Characterization of neonatal aortic cannula jet flow regimes for improved cardiopulmonary bypass

Prahlad G. Menon, Nikola Teslovich, Chia Yuan Chen, Akif Undar, Kerem Pekkan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During pediatric and neonatal cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), tiny aortic outflow cannulae (2-3. mm inner diameter), with micro-scale blood-wetting features transport relatively large blood volumes (0.3 to 1.0. L/min) resulting in high blood flow velocities (2 to 5. m/s). These severe flow conditions are likely to complement platelet activation, release pro-inflammatory cytokines, and further result in vascular and blood damage. Hemodynamically efficient aortic outflow cannulae are required to provide high blood volume flow rates at low exit force. In addition, optimal aortic insertion strategies are necessary in order to alleviate hemolytic risk, post-surgical neurological complications and developmental defects, by improving cerebral perfusion in the young patient. The methodology and results presented in this study serve as a baseline for design of superior aortic outflow cannulae. In this study, direct numerical simulation (DNS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was employed to delineate baseline hemodynamic performance of jet wakes emanating from microCT scanned state-of-the-art pediatric cannula tips in a cuboidal test rig operating at physiologically relevant laminar and turbulent Reynolds numbers (Re: 650-2150 , steady inflow). Qualitative and quantitative validation of CFD simulated device-specific jet wakes was established using time-resolved flow visualization and particle image velocimetry (PIV). For the standard end-hole cannula tip design, blood damage indices were further numerically assessed in a subject-specific cross-clamped neonatal aorta model for different cannula insertion configurations. Based on these results, a novel diffuser type cannula tip is proposed for improved jet flow-control, decreased blood damage and exit force and increased permissible flow rates. This study also suggests that surgically relevant cannula orientation parameters such as outflow angle and insertion depth may be important for improved hemodynamic performance. The jet flow design paradigm demonstrated in this study represents a philosophical shift towards cannula flow control enabling favorable pressure-drop versus outflow rate characteristics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)362-372
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Biomechanics
Volume46
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 18 2013

Fingerprint

Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Blood
Pediatrics
Hemodynamics
Flow control
Computational fluid dynamics
Hydrodynamics
Blood Volume
Flow rate
Direct numerical simulation
Flow visualization
Platelets
Cannula
X-Ray Microtomography
Flow velocity
Velocity measurement
Blood Flow Velocity
Rheology
Pressure drop
Complement Activation

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Rehabilitation

Cite this

Menon, Prahlad G. ; Teslovich, Nikola ; Chen, Chia Yuan ; Undar, Akif ; Pekkan, Kerem. / Characterization of neonatal aortic cannula jet flow regimes for improved cardiopulmonary bypass. In: Journal of Biomechanics. 2013 ; Vol. 46, No. 2. pp. 362-372.
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Characterization of neonatal aortic cannula jet flow regimes for improved cardiopulmonary bypass. / Menon, Prahlad G.; Teslovich, Nikola; Chen, Chia Yuan; Undar, Akif; Pekkan, Kerem.

In: Journal of Biomechanics, Vol. 46, No. 2, 18.01.2013, p. 362-372.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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