Botrytis cinerea causes gray mold and is an economically important postharvest pathogen of fruit, vegetables, and ornamentals. Fludioxonilsensitive B. cinerea isolates were collected in 2011 and 2013 from commercial storage in Pennsylvania. Eight isolates had values for effective concentrations for inhibiting 50% of mycelial growth of 0.0004 to 0.0038 μg/ml for fludioxonil and were dual resistant to pyrimethanil and thiabendazole. Resistance was generated in vitro, following exposure to a sublethal dose of fludioxonil, in seven of eight dual-resistant B. cinerea isolates. Three vigorously growing B. cinerea isolates with multiresistance to postharvest fungicides were further characterized and found to be osmosensitive and retained resistance in the absence of selection pressure. A representative multiresistant B. cinerea strain caused decay on apple fruit treated with postharvest fungicides, which confirmed the in vitro results. The R632I mutation in the Mrr1 gene, associated with fludioxonil resistance in B. cinerea, was not detected in multipostharvest fungicide-resistant B. cinerea isolates, suggesting that the fungus may be using additional mechanisms to mediate resistance. Results from this study show for the first time that B. cinerea with dual resistance to pyrimethanil and thiabendazole can also rapidly develop resistance to fludioxonil, which may pose control challenges in the packinghouse environment and during long-Term storage.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Plant Science