Charge heterogeneity and nanostructure of 2:1 layer silicates by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

P. B. Malla, M. Robert, L. A. Douglas, D. Tessier, Sridhar Komarneni

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Several soil and reference smectites and vermiculites and one reference illite were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to decipher the nanostructure and layer charge heterogeneity in these minerals. HRTEM results were compared with those obtained from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Samples were either exchanged with Na+ ions followed by equilibration with a very dilute solution of NaCl in a pressure membrane apparatus at 316 hPa (pF = 2.5) to see the effect of hydration and applied pressure on layer organization, or exchanged with dodecylammonium ions to see the expansion behavior. Oriented samples were embedded in a low viscosity resin and cut approximately 500 Å thick perpendicular to d(001) using an ultramicrotome fitted with a diamond knife. In general, Na-saturated soil clays possessed crystallites that were thinner (c-direction) and shorter (ab-direction) as compared with reference clays. In all cases, samples treated with dodecylammonium chloride exhibited nanostructures that were more disintegrated as compared with Na-saturated samples. In a soil vermiculite, dodecylammonium ion exchange showed frayed edges indicating the initiation of mica transformation to vermiculite from edge toward core. In a reference vermiculite (Transvaal) treated with dodecylammonium ions, in addition to completely expanded crystallites, a regular interstratification between expanded vermiculite and mica (phlogopite) layers was clearly observed in some crystallites. Such nanostructural details were not detected by XRD. HRTEM of the Na-treated illite showed thick crystallites having 10 Å layer separations, whereas the dodecylammonium-exchanged illite showed three types of layers with different degrees of expansion indicating charge heterogeneity in illite: 1) unexpanded (10 Å, highest charge) crystallites; 2) expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 Å) crystallites; and 3) occasionally expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 Å) layers interspersed in the matrix of 10Å crystallites.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)412-422
Number of pages11
JournalClays and Clay Minerals
Volume41
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1993

Fingerprint

Silicates
nanomaterials
vermiculite
silicates
High resolution transmission electron microscopy
Crystallites
transmission electron microscopy
Nanostructures
silicate
illite
mica
Ions
ions
ion
Soils
X-ray diffraction
sampling
phlogopite
Diamond
knives

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

Cite this

@article{d91e35b1902b48a0abeede46043627fa,
title = "Charge heterogeneity and nanostructure of 2:1 layer silicates by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy",
abstract = "Several soil and reference smectites and vermiculites and one reference illite were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to decipher the nanostructure and layer charge heterogeneity in these minerals. HRTEM results were compared with those obtained from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Samples were either exchanged with Na+ ions followed by equilibration with a very dilute solution of NaCl in a pressure membrane apparatus at 316 hPa (pF = 2.5) to see the effect of hydration and applied pressure on layer organization, or exchanged with dodecylammonium ions to see the expansion behavior. Oriented samples were embedded in a low viscosity resin and cut approximately 500 {\AA} thick perpendicular to d(001) using an ultramicrotome fitted with a diamond knife. In general, Na-saturated soil clays possessed crystallites that were thinner (c-direction) and shorter (ab-direction) as compared with reference clays. In all cases, samples treated with dodecylammonium chloride exhibited nanostructures that were more disintegrated as compared with Na-saturated samples. In a soil vermiculite, dodecylammonium ion exchange showed frayed edges indicating the initiation of mica transformation to vermiculite from edge toward core. In a reference vermiculite (Transvaal) treated with dodecylammonium ions, in addition to completely expanded crystallites, a regular interstratification between expanded vermiculite and mica (phlogopite) layers was clearly observed in some crystallites. Such nanostructural details were not detected by XRD. HRTEM of the Na-treated illite showed thick crystallites having 10 {\AA} layer separations, whereas the dodecylammonium-exchanged illite showed three types of layers with different degrees of expansion indicating charge heterogeneity in illite: 1) unexpanded (10 {\AA}, highest charge) crystallites; 2) expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 {\AA}) crystallites; and 3) occasionally expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 {\AA}) layers interspersed in the matrix of 10{\AA} crystallites.",
author = "Malla, {P. B.} and M. Robert and Douglas, {L. A.} and D. Tessier and Sridhar Komarneni",
year = "1993",
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language = "English (US)",
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Charge heterogeneity and nanostructure of 2:1 layer silicates by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. / Malla, P. B.; Robert, M.; Douglas, L. A.; Tessier, D.; Komarneni, Sridhar.

In: Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 41, No. 4, 01.01.1993, p. 412-422.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Charge heterogeneity and nanostructure of 2:1 layer silicates by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

AU - Malla, P. B.

AU - Robert, M.

AU - Douglas, L. A.

AU - Tessier, D.

AU - Komarneni, Sridhar

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N2 - Several soil and reference smectites and vermiculites and one reference illite were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to decipher the nanostructure and layer charge heterogeneity in these minerals. HRTEM results were compared with those obtained from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Samples were either exchanged with Na+ ions followed by equilibration with a very dilute solution of NaCl in a pressure membrane apparatus at 316 hPa (pF = 2.5) to see the effect of hydration and applied pressure on layer organization, or exchanged with dodecylammonium ions to see the expansion behavior. Oriented samples were embedded in a low viscosity resin and cut approximately 500 Å thick perpendicular to d(001) using an ultramicrotome fitted with a diamond knife. In general, Na-saturated soil clays possessed crystallites that were thinner (c-direction) and shorter (ab-direction) as compared with reference clays. In all cases, samples treated with dodecylammonium chloride exhibited nanostructures that were more disintegrated as compared with Na-saturated samples. In a soil vermiculite, dodecylammonium ion exchange showed frayed edges indicating the initiation of mica transformation to vermiculite from edge toward core. In a reference vermiculite (Transvaal) treated with dodecylammonium ions, in addition to completely expanded crystallites, a regular interstratification between expanded vermiculite and mica (phlogopite) layers was clearly observed in some crystallites. Such nanostructural details were not detected by XRD. HRTEM of the Na-treated illite showed thick crystallites having 10 Å layer separations, whereas the dodecylammonium-exchanged illite showed three types of layers with different degrees of expansion indicating charge heterogeneity in illite: 1) unexpanded (10 Å, highest charge) crystallites; 2) expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 Å) crystallites; and 3) occasionally expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 Å) layers interspersed in the matrix of 10Å crystallites.

AB - Several soil and reference smectites and vermiculites and one reference illite were examined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) to decipher the nanostructure and layer charge heterogeneity in these minerals. HRTEM results were compared with those obtained from powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Samples were either exchanged with Na+ ions followed by equilibration with a very dilute solution of NaCl in a pressure membrane apparatus at 316 hPa (pF = 2.5) to see the effect of hydration and applied pressure on layer organization, or exchanged with dodecylammonium ions to see the expansion behavior. Oriented samples were embedded in a low viscosity resin and cut approximately 500 Å thick perpendicular to d(001) using an ultramicrotome fitted with a diamond knife. In general, Na-saturated soil clays possessed crystallites that were thinner (c-direction) and shorter (ab-direction) as compared with reference clays. In all cases, samples treated with dodecylammonium chloride exhibited nanostructures that were more disintegrated as compared with Na-saturated samples. In a soil vermiculite, dodecylammonium ion exchange showed frayed edges indicating the initiation of mica transformation to vermiculite from edge toward core. In a reference vermiculite (Transvaal) treated with dodecylammonium ions, in addition to completely expanded crystallites, a regular interstratification between expanded vermiculite and mica (phlogopite) layers was clearly observed in some crystallites. Such nanostructural details were not detected by XRD. HRTEM of the Na-treated illite showed thick crystallites having 10 Å layer separations, whereas the dodecylammonium-exchanged illite showed three types of layers with different degrees of expansion indicating charge heterogeneity in illite: 1) unexpanded (10 Å, highest charge) crystallites; 2) expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 Å) crystallites; and 3) occasionally expanded high-charge vermiculite-like (24 Å) layers interspersed in the matrix of 10Å crystallites.

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