We evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of the organoselenium compound 1,4-phenylenebis(methylene)selenocyanate (p-XSC) against the development of tumors of the lung and forestomach induced by a mixture of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), two of the major lung carcinogens present in tobacco smoke. A/J mice (20 mice/group) were given intragastric doses of a mixture of B(a)P (3 μmol/mouse) and NNK (3 μmol/mouse) in cottonseed oil (0.1 ml) once a week for eight consecutive weeks. Mice were fed either AIN-76A control diet or control diet containing p-XSC (10 ppm selenium), either during or after carcinogen administration. Dietary p-XSC significantly reduced lung tumor multiplicity, regardless of whether it was given during or after carcinogen administration. p-XSC was also an effective inhibitor of tumor development in the forestomach. To provide some biochemical insights into the protective role of p-XSC, its effect on selected phase I and II enzyme activities involved in the metabolism of NNK and B(a)P was also examined in vivo in this animal model. Dietary p-XSC significantly inhibited the activities of the phase I enzymes, methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD) and N-nitrosodimethylamine N-demethylase (NDMAD), in mouse liver, but it had no effect on ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), and erythromycin N-demethylase (ERYTD). Total glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activity, as well as GST-π and GST-μ enzyme activities, were significantly induced by dietary p-XSC in both the lung and liver. Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activity was also induced by p-XSC in mouse lung, but not in the liver. Dietary p-XSC had no effect on selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPX(Se)), GST-α, and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) enzyme activities in either the lung or the liver. These studies suggest that the chemopreventive efficacy of p-XSC, when fed during carcinogen administration, may be, in part, due to the inhibition of certain phase I enzymes involved in the metabolic activation of these carcinogens, and the induction of specific phase II enzymes involved in their detoxification. The mechanisms that account for the effect of p-XSC when fed after carcinogen administration remain to be determined. Copyright (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cancer Research