Child behavior problems among cocaine-exposed toddlers: Indirect and interactive effects

Rina D. Eiden, Douglas A. Granger, Pamela Schuetze, Yvette Veira

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

This study examined the role of maternal psychopathology and maternal warmth as mediators of the association between prenatal cocaine and other substance exposure and toddler behavior problems. It was also hypothesized that infant cortisol reactivity and environmental risk may moderate these associations. Participants were 220 caregiver-infant dyads (119 cocaine exposed, 101 not cocaine exposed; 49% boys). Mother-infant dyads were recruited at delivery with assessments at 4-8 weeks and 7, 13, and 18 months of child ages. Results yielded no direct associations between prenatal cocaine/other substance exposure and toddler behavior problems, but significant indirect associations between prenatal cigarette/alcohol exposure and toddler behavior problems at 18 months. With regard to moderation, results indicated an indirect association between prenatal cocaine exposure and toddler behavior problems via lower maternal warmth for children with higher, but not lower, cortisol reactivity at 7 months. Results suggest potential pathways to toddler behavior problems among children at high biological risk.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)539-550
Number of pages12
JournalDevelopment and Psychopathology
Volume23
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 1 2011

    Fingerprint

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this