Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring: Are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected?

Jeremy D. Keenan, J. Moncada, T. Gebre, B. Ayele, Michael Chen, S. N. Yu, P. M. Emerson, N. E. Stoller, C. E. Mcculloch, B. D. Gaynor, J. Schachter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives During mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma, certain individuals are difficult to locate and go untreated. These untreated individuals may serve as a source of community reinfection. The importance of this difficult-to-locate, untreated population is unclear. We sought to determine whether individuals who are difficult to locate were more likely to be infected with ocular chlamydia than those who were easier to locate. Methods We monitored 12 Ethiopian communities 1year after a third annual mass azithromycin treatment for trachoma. Conjunctival swabbing for chlamydial RNA was performed in a random sample of children from each community. If insufficient numbers of children were enrolled on the first monitoring day, we returned on subsequent days. Results Of the 12 communities, 10 required more than one monitoring day. On average, 16.1% (95% CI 7.9-30.0) of children were enrolled after the initial day. Evidence of chlamydia was found in 7.1% (95% CI 2.7-17.4) of 0- to 9-year-old children. No ocular swabs collected after the initial day were positive for chlamydial RNA. Children examined after the initial monitoring day were significantly less likely to have ocular chlamydial infection than children seen on the initial day; Mantel-Haenszel common OR=0 (95% CI 0-0.77). Conclusions In a setting of repeated annual mass azithromycin treatments, after approximately 80% of individuals have been located in a community, extra efforts to find absent individuals may not yield significantly more cases of ocular chlamydia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)392-396
Number of pages5
JournalTropical Medicine and International Health
Volume17
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2012

Fingerprint

Trachoma
Chlamydia
Infection
Azithromycin
RNA
Eye Infections
Anti-Bacterial Agents
Therapeutics
Population

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Parasitology
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Keenan, Jeremy D. ; Moncada, J. ; Gebre, T. ; Ayele, B. ; Chen, Michael ; Yu, S. N. ; Emerson, P. M. ; Stoller, N. E. ; Mcculloch, C. E. ; Gaynor, B. D. ; Schachter, J. / Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring : Are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected?. In: Tropical Medicine and International Health. 2012 ; Vol. 17, No. 3. pp. 392-396.
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title = "Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring: Are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected?",
abstract = "Objectives During mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma, certain individuals are difficult to locate and go untreated. These untreated individuals may serve as a source of community reinfection. The importance of this difficult-to-locate, untreated population is unclear. We sought to determine whether individuals who are difficult to locate were more likely to be infected with ocular chlamydia than those who were easier to locate. Methods We monitored 12 Ethiopian communities 1year after a third annual mass azithromycin treatment for trachoma. Conjunctival swabbing for chlamydial RNA was performed in a random sample of children from each community. If insufficient numbers of children were enrolled on the first monitoring day, we returned on subsequent days. Results Of the 12 communities, 10 required more than one monitoring day. On average, 16.1{\%} (95{\%} CI 7.9-30.0) of children were enrolled after the initial day. Evidence of chlamydia was found in 7.1{\%} (95{\%} CI 2.7-17.4) of 0- to 9-year-old children. No ocular swabs collected after the initial day were positive for chlamydial RNA. Children examined after the initial monitoring day were significantly less likely to have ocular chlamydial infection than children seen on the initial day; Mantel-Haenszel common OR=0 (95{\%} CI 0-0.77). Conclusions In a setting of repeated annual mass azithromycin treatments, after approximately 80{\%} of individuals have been located in a community, extra efforts to find absent individuals may not yield significantly more cases of ocular chlamydia.",
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Keenan, JD, Moncada, J, Gebre, T, Ayele, B, Chen, M, Yu, SN, Emerson, PM, Stoller, NE, Mcculloch, CE, Gaynor, BD & Schachter, J 2012, 'Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring: Are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected?', Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 392-396. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02919.x

Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring : Are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected? / Keenan, Jeremy D.; Moncada, J.; Gebre, T.; Ayele, B.; Chen, Michael; Yu, S. N.; Emerson, P. M.; Stoller, N. E.; Mcculloch, C. E.; Gaynor, B. D.; Schachter, J.

In: Tropical Medicine and International Health, Vol. 17, No. 3, 01.03.2012, p. 392-396.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chlamydial infection during trachoma monitoring

T2 - Are the most difficult-to-reach children more likely to be infected?

AU - Keenan, Jeremy D.

AU - Moncada, J.

AU - Gebre, T.

AU - Ayele, B.

AU - Chen, Michael

AU - Yu, S. N.

AU - Emerson, P. M.

AU - Stoller, N. E.

AU - Mcculloch, C. E.

AU - Gaynor, B. D.

AU - Schachter, J.

PY - 2012/3/1

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N2 - Objectives During mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma, certain individuals are difficult to locate and go untreated. These untreated individuals may serve as a source of community reinfection. The importance of this difficult-to-locate, untreated population is unclear. We sought to determine whether individuals who are difficult to locate were more likely to be infected with ocular chlamydia than those who were easier to locate. Methods We monitored 12 Ethiopian communities 1year after a third annual mass azithromycin treatment for trachoma. Conjunctival swabbing for chlamydial RNA was performed in a random sample of children from each community. If insufficient numbers of children were enrolled on the first monitoring day, we returned on subsequent days. Results Of the 12 communities, 10 required more than one monitoring day. On average, 16.1% (95% CI 7.9-30.0) of children were enrolled after the initial day. Evidence of chlamydia was found in 7.1% (95% CI 2.7-17.4) of 0- to 9-year-old children. No ocular swabs collected after the initial day were positive for chlamydial RNA. Children examined after the initial monitoring day were significantly less likely to have ocular chlamydial infection than children seen on the initial day; Mantel-Haenszel common OR=0 (95% CI 0-0.77). Conclusions In a setting of repeated annual mass azithromycin treatments, after approximately 80% of individuals have been located in a community, extra efforts to find absent individuals may not yield significantly more cases of ocular chlamydia.

AB - Objectives During mass antibiotic distributions for trachoma, certain individuals are difficult to locate and go untreated. These untreated individuals may serve as a source of community reinfection. The importance of this difficult-to-locate, untreated population is unclear. We sought to determine whether individuals who are difficult to locate were more likely to be infected with ocular chlamydia than those who were easier to locate. Methods We monitored 12 Ethiopian communities 1year after a third annual mass azithromycin treatment for trachoma. Conjunctival swabbing for chlamydial RNA was performed in a random sample of children from each community. If insufficient numbers of children were enrolled on the first monitoring day, we returned on subsequent days. Results Of the 12 communities, 10 required more than one monitoring day. On average, 16.1% (95% CI 7.9-30.0) of children were enrolled after the initial day. Evidence of chlamydia was found in 7.1% (95% CI 2.7-17.4) of 0- to 9-year-old children. No ocular swabs collected after the initial day were positive for chlamydial RNA. Children examined after the initial monitoring day were significantly less likely to have ocular chlamydial infection than children seen on the initial day; Mantel-Haenszel common OR=0 (95% CI 0-0.77). Conclusions In a setting of repeated annual mass azithromycin treatments, after approximately 80% of individuals have been located in a community, extra efforts to find absent individuals may not yield significantly more cases of ocular chlamydia.

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