Objectives: Exogenous administration of cholecystokinin (CCK) induces hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the pancreas with an increase in DNA content. We hypothesized that endogenous CCK is involved in the malignant progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions and the fibrosis associated with pancreatic cancer.
Methods: The presence of CCK receptors in early PanIN lesions was examined by immunohistochemistry in mouse and human pancreas. Pdx1-Cre/LSL-KrasG12D transgenic mice were randomized to receive either untreated drinking water or water supplemented with a CCK receptor antagonist (proglumide, 0.1 mg/mL). Pancreas from the mice were removed and examined histologically for number and grade of PanINs after 1, 2, or 4 months of antagonist therapy.
Results: Both CCK, A and CCK-B receptors were identified in early stage PanINs from mouse and human pancreas. The grade of PanIN lesions was reversed, and progression to advanced lesions arrested in mice treated with proglumide compared with the controls (P = 0.004). Furthermore, pancreatic fibrosis was significantly reduced in antagonist-treated animals compared with vehicle (P < 0.001).
Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that endogenous CCK is in part responsible for the development and progression of pancreatic cancer. The use of CCK receptor antagonists may have a role in cancer prophylaxis in high-risk subjects and may reduce fibrosis in the microenvironment.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism