Chronic Hypnotic-Drug Use: Ineffectiveness, Drug-Withdrawal Insomnia, and Dependence

Anthony Kales, Edward Bixler, Tjiauw-ling Tan, Martin B. Scharf, Joyce D. Kales

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Ten patients, each of whom had been using hypnotic drugs for periods ranging from months to years, were monitored in the sleep laboratory while continuing to receive medication. Comparison with insomniac controls who were not receiving medication demonstrated a significant decrease of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in the chronic drug users. A striking finding was the fact that all of these patients had as great or greater difficulty in falling asleep or staying asleep, or both, than the insomniac controls who were not using medication. Abrupt withdrawal of ineffective drugs is not recommended due to psychological and physiological changes that contribute to drug-withdrawal insomnia and hypnotic-drug dependence. The ineffectiveness of hypnotic drugs demonstrated in this study and in our earlier sleep laboratory drug evaluation studies indicates the need for changes in the guidelines used for evaluating and advertising hypnotic drugs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)513-517
Number of pages5
JournalJAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association
Volume227
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 4 1974

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Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
Hypnotics and Sedatives
Sleep
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Drug Evaluation
REM Sleep
Drug Users
Substance-Related Disorders
Guidelines
Psychology

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Kales, Anthony ; Bixler, Edward ; Tan, Tjiauw-ling ; Scharf, Martin B. ; Kales, Joyce D. / Chronic Hypnotic-Drug Use : Ineffectiveness, Drug-Withdrawal Insomnia, and Dependence. In: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 1974 ; Vol. 227, No. 5. pp. 513-517.
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Chronic Hypnotic-Drug Use : Ineffectiveness, Drug-Withdrawal Insomnia, and Dependence. / Kales, Anthony; Bixler, Edward; Tan, Tjiauw-ling; Scharf, Martin B.; Kales, Joyce D.

In: JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 227, No. 5, 04.02.1974, p. 513-517.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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