Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skull

Patrick James Drew, Andy Y. Shih, Jonathan D. Driscoll, Per Magne Knutsen, Pablo Blinder, Dimitrios Davalos, Katerina Akassoglou, Philbert S. Tsai, David Kleinfeld

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

305 Scopus citations


We present a method to form an optical window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without causing brain inflammation. This enabled us to repeatedly image blood flow in cortical capillaries of awake mice and determine long-range correlations in speed. We also repeatedly imaged dendritic spines, microglia and angioarchitecture, as well as used illumination to drive motor output via optogenetics and induce microstrokes via photosensitizers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)981-984
Number of pages4
JournalNature methods
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2010

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology


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