Chronic resistance training in women potentiates growth hormone in vivo bioactivity

Characterization of molecular mass variants

William J. Kraemer, Bradley C. Nindl, James O. Marx, Lincoln A. Gotshalk, Jill A. Bush, Jill R. Welsch, Jeff S. Volek, Barry A. Spiering, Carl M. Maresh, Andrea Marie Mastro, Wesley C. Hymer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This investigation determined the influence of acute and chronic resistance exercise on responses of growth hormone (GH) molecular variants in women. Seventy-four healthy young women (23 ± 3 yr, 167 ± 7 cm, 63.8 ± 9.3 kg, 26.3 ± 4.0% body fat) performed an acute bout of resistance exercise (6 sets of 10 repetition maximum squat). Blood samples were obtained pre- and postexercise. Resulting plasma was fractionated by molecular mass (fraction A, >60 kDa; fraction B, 30-60 kDa; and fraction C, <30 kDa) using chromatography. Fractionated and unfractionated (UF) plasma was then assayed for GH using three different detection systems (monoclonal immunoassay, polyclonal immunoassay, and rat tibial line in vivo bioassay). Subjects were then matched and randomly placed into one of four resistance exercise training groups or a control group for 24 wk. All experimental procedures were repeated on completion of the 24-wk resistance training programs. After acute exercise, immunoassays showed consistent increases in UF GH samples and fractions B and C; increases in fraction A using immunoassay were seen only in the monoclonal assay. No consistent changes in bioactive GH were found following acute exercise. Conversely, chronic exercise induced no consistent changes in immunoassayable GH of various molecular masses, whereas, in general, bioassayable GH increased. In summary, although acute exercise increased only immunoactive GH, chronic physical training increased the biological activity of circulating GH molecular variants. Increased bioactive GH was observed across all fractions and training regimens, suggesting that chronic resistance exercise increased a spectrum of GH molecules that may be necessary for the multitude of somatogenic and metabolic actions of GH.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume291
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 18 2006

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Resistance Training
Molecular mass
Bioactivity
Growth Hormone
Exercise
Immunoassay
Plasmas
Bioassay
Chromatography
Biological Assay
Adipose Tissue
Rats
Assays
Blood
Fats
Education

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Kraemer, William J. ; Nindl, Bradley C. ; Marx, James O. ; Gotshalk, Lincoln A. ; Bush, Jill A. ; Welsch, Jill R. ; Volek, Jeff S. ; Spiering, Barry A. ; Maresh, Carl M. ; Mastro, Andrea Marie ; Hymer, Wesley C. / Chronic resistance training in women potentiates growth hormone in vivo bioactivity : Characterization of molecular mass variants. In: American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2006 ; Vol. 291, No. 6.
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abstract = "This investigation determined the influence of acute and chronic resistance exercise on responses of growth hormone (GH) molecular variants in women. Seventy-four healthy young women (23 ± 3 yr, 167 ± 7 cm, 63.8 ± 9.3 kg, 26.3 ± 4.0{\%} body fat) performed an acute bout of resistance exercise (6 sets of 10 repetition maximum squat). Blood samples were obtained pre- and postexercise. Resulting plasma was fractionated by molecular mass (fraction A, >60 kDa; fraction B, 30-60 kDa; and fraction C, <30 kDa) using chromatography. Fractionated and unfractionated (UF) plasma was then assayed for GH using three different detection systems (monoclonal immunoassay, polyclonal immunoassay, and rat tibial line in vivo bioassay). Subjects were then matched and randomly placed into one of four resistance exercise training groups or a control group for 24 wk. All experimental procedures were repeated on completion of the 24-wk resistance training programs. After acute exercise, immunoassays showed consistent increases in UF GH samples and fractions B and C; increases in fraction A using immunoassay were seen only in the monoclonal assay. No consistent changes in bioactive GH were found following acute exercise. Conversely, chronic exercise induced no consistent changes in immunoassayable GH of various molecular masses, whereas, in general, bioassayable GH increased. In summary, although acute exercise increased only immunoactive GH, chronic physical training increased the biological activity of circulating GH molecular variants. Increased bioactive GH was observed across all fractions and training regimens, suggesting that chronic resistance exercise increased a spectrum of GH molecules that may be necessary for the multitude of somatogenic and metabolic actions of GH.",
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Kraemer, WJ, Nindl, BC, Marx, JO, Gotshalk, LA, Bush, JA, Welsch, JR, Volek, JS, Spiering, BA, Maresh, CM, Mastro, AM & Hymer, WC 2006, 'Chronic resistance training in women potentiates growth hormone in vivo bioactivity: Characterization of molecular mass variants', American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 291, no. 6. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00042.2006

Chronic resistance training in women potentiates growth hormone in vivo bioactivity : Characterization of molecular mass variants. / Kraemer, William J.; Nindl, Bradley C.; Marx, James O.; Gotshalk, Lincoln A.; Bush, Jill A.; Welsch, Jill R.; Volek, Jeff S.; Spiering, Barry A.; Maresh, Carl M.; Mastro, Andrea Marie; Hymer, Wesley C.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 291, No. 6, 18.12.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Chronic resistance training in women potentiates growth hormone in vivo bioactivity

T2 - Characterization of molecular mass variants

AU - Kraemer, William J.

AU - Nindl, Bradley C.

AU - Marx, James O.

AU - Gotshalk, Lincoln A.

AU - Bush, Jill A.

AU - Welsch, Jill R.

AU - Volek, Jeff S.

AU - Spiering, Barry A.

AU - Maresh, Carl M.

AU - Mastro, Andrea Marie

AU - Hymer, Wesley C.

PY - 2006/12/18

Y1 - 2006/12/18

N2 - This investigation determined the influence of acute and chronic resistance exercise on responses of growth hormone (GH) molecular variants in women. Seventy-four healthy young women (23 ± 3 yr, 167 ± 7 cm, 63.8 ± 9.3 kg, 26.3 ± 4.0% body fat) performed an acute bout of resistance exercise (6 sets of 10 repetition maximum squat). Blood samples were obtained pre- and postexercise. Resulting plasma was fractionated by molecular mass (fraction A, >60 kDa; fraction B, 30-60 kDa; and fraction C, <30 kDa) using chromatography. Fractionated and unfractionated (UF) plasma was then assayed for GH using three different detection systems (monoclonal immunoassay, polyclonal immunoassay, and rat tibial line in vivo bioassay). Subjects were then matched and randomly placed into one of four resistance exercise training groups or a control group for 24 wk. All experimental procedures were repeated on completion of the 24-wk resistance training programs. After acute exercise, immunoassays showed consistent increases in UF GH samples and fractions B and C; increases in fraction A using immunoassay were seen only in the monoclonal assay. No consistent changes in bioactive GH were found following acute exercise. Conversely, chronic exercise induced no consistent changes in immunoassayable GH of various molecular masses, whereas, in general, bioassayable GH increased. In summary, although acute exercise increased only immunoactive GH, chronic physical training increased the biological activity of circulating GH molecular variants. Increased bioactive GH was observed across all fractions and training regimens, suggesting that chronic resistance exercise increased a spectrum of GH molecules that may be necessary for the multitude of somatogenic and metabolic actions of GH.

AB - This investigation determined the influence of acute and chronic resistance exercise on responses of growth hormone (GH) molecular variants in women. Seventy-four healthy young women (23 ± 3 yr, 167 ± 7 cm, 63.8 ± 9.3 kg, 26.3 ± 4.0% body fat) performed an acute bout of resistance exercise (6 sets of 10 repetition maximum squat). Blood samples were obtained pre- and postexercise. Resulting plasma was fractionated by molecular mass (fraction A, >60 kDa; fraction B, 30-60 kDa; and fraction C, <30 kDa) using chromatography. Fractionated and unfractionated (UF) plasma was then assayed for GH using three different detection systems (monoclonal immunoassay, polyclonal immunoassay, and rat tibial line in vivo bioassay). Subjects were then matched and randomly placed into one of four resistance exercise training groups or a control group for 24 wk. All experimental procedures were repeated on completion of the 24-wk resistance training programs. After acute exercise, immunoassays showed consistent increases in UF GH samples and fractions B and C; increases in fraction A using immunoassay were seen only in the monoclonal assay. No consistent changes in bioactive GH were found following acute exercise. Conversely, chronic exercise induced no consistent changes in immunoassayable GH of various molecular masses, whereas, in general, bioassayable GH increased. In summary, although acute exercise increased only immunoactive GH, chronic physical training increased the biological activity of circulating GH molecular variants. Increased bioactive GH was observed across all fractions and training regimens, suggesting that chronic resistance exercise increased a spectrum of GH molecules that may be necessary for the multitude of somatogenic and metabolic actions of GH.

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