Cigarette Brand Switching. Relating Assessment Strategies to the Critical Issues

Martin J. McMorrow, R. M. Foxx

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


The debate regarding what occurs when people switch to low-tar and low-nicotine cigarettes encompasses three research issues (i.e., risk reduction, nicotine regulation, and compensation), and each requires a different assessment strategy. Yet many studies have failed to differentiate these issues and have offered conclusions that are based on questionable inferences regarding exposure to specific smoke constituents. This article relates the various assessment strategies to the critical issues in cigarette brand switching by: (a) tracing the development of current assessment strategies and clarifying the relative strengths of mouth-level, machine-based, behavioral, and biochemical measures, (b) reviewing a variety of biochemical assessments including carbon monoxide, thiocyanate, nicotine, and cotinine, (c) examining the utility of these measures in risk reduction, nicotine regulation, and compensation studies, and (d) suggesting future directions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)139-159
Number of pages21
JournalPsychological Bulletin
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 1985

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • History and Philosophy of Science
  • Psychology(all)


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