Cigarette smoking shortens the duration of daily leisure time physical activity in patients with intermittent claudication

Andrew W. Gardner, Christopher J. Womack, Polly S. Montgomery, Doris Franklin, Lois A. Killewich

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Purpose. The authors determined (1) whether peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) patients who smoke have a reduction in either the duration or intensity of daily physical activities compared with nonsmoking patients, and (2) whether group differences in the pattern of physical activity persisted after controlling for potential confounding variables. Methods. A total of 170 smokers and 201 nonsmokers who had quit smoking for at least 1 year prior to investigation were studied. Physical activity patterns were measured using the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity (LTPA) questionnaire. Patients also were characterized on potential covariates such as demographics, comorbid conditions, cardiovascular risk factors, ambulatory measures, peripheral hemodynamics, and anthropometric measures. Results. The smokers were 37% less physically active than the nonsmokers (87 ± 90 versus 139 ± 121 kcal/day; P = 0.027). The reduced total LTPA in the smokers was due to a 28% shorter duration of performing activities (26 ± 17 versus 36 ± 22 min/day; P = 0.031), and a 13% lower mean intensity of the activities (3.3 ± 1.0 versus 3.8 ± 0.8 kcal/min; P = 0.038). The distance score on the Walking Impairment Questionnaire and the hip circumference were significant covariates of the LTPA measures. After adjusting for these covariates, the total LTPA remained 29% lower in the smokers (P = 0.039), the mean daily duration of LTPA remained 20% lower (P = 0.043), but the mean intensity of LTPA was no longer different between the groups. Conclusion. Compared with their nonsmoking counterparts, claudicants who smoke have a reduced total LTPA because they engage in activities of similar intensity for a shorter duration of time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-51
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1999

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Rehabilitation


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