Cigarettes, genetic background, and menopausal timing: The presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytochrome P450 genes is associated with increased risk of natural menopause in European-American smokers

Samantha F. Butts, Mary D. Sammel, Christine Greer, Timothy R. Rebbeck, David W. Boorman, Ellen W. Freeman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

12 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: This study aims to evaluate associations between variations in genes involved in the metabolism of environmental chemicals and steroid hormones and risk of menopause in smokers. Methods: Survival analysis was performed on 410 eligible participants from the Penn Ovarian Aging study (ongoing for 14 years), a cohort study of late-reproductive-age women. Single nucleotide polymorphisms at the following loci were studied: COMT Val158Met, CYP1B1*4 Asn452Ser, CYP1B1*3 Leu432Val, and CYP3A4*1B. Results: Significant interactions between smoking and single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in European-American carriers of CYP3A4*1B and CYP1B1*3, supporting a greater risk of menopause entry compared with those not carrying these alleles. Among CYP1B1*3 carriers, smokers had a greater risk of menopause entry than nonsmokers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.26; 95% CI, 1.4-3.67; median time to menopause, 10.42 and 11.07 y, respectively). No association between smoking and menopause was identified in CYP1B1 wild types. Among CYP3A4*1B carriers, smokers were at greater risk for menopause entry than nonsmokers (adjusted HR, 15.1; 95% CI, 3.31-69.2; median time to menopause, 11.36 and 13.91 y, respectively). Risk of menopause entry in CYP3A4 wild types who smoked was far lower (adjusted HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.03-2.44). Heavily smoking CYP1B1*3 carriers (adjusted HR, 3.0; 95% CI, 1.54-5.84; median time to menopause, 10.41 y) and heavily smoking CYP3A4*1B carriers (adjusted HR, 17.79; 95% CI, 3.21-98.65; median time to menopause, 5.09 y) had the greatest risk of menopause entry. Conclusions: Our finding that the risk of menopause entry in European-American smokers varies depending on genetic background represents a novel gene-environment interaction in reproductive aging.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)694-701
Number of pages8
JournalMenopause
Volume21
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

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