Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations

J. Hansen, M. Sato, L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, A. Lacis, D. Koch, I. Tegen, T. Hall, D. Shindell, B. Santer, P. Stone, T. Novakov, L. Thomason, R. Wang, Y. Wang, D. Jacob, S. Hollandsworth, L. Bishop, J. Logan, Anne Mee ThompsonR. Stolarski, J. Lean, R. Willson, S. Levitus, J. Antonov, N. Rayner, D. Parker, J. Christy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

195 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We define the radiative forcings used in climate simulations with the SI2000 version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global climate model. These include temporal variations of well-mixed greenhouse gases, stratospheric aerosols, solar irradiance, ozone, stratospheric water vapor, and tropospheric aerosols. Our illustrations focus on the period 1951-2050, but we make the full data sets available for those forcings for which we have earlier data. We illustrate the global response to these forcings for the SI2000 model with specified sea surface temperature and with a simple Q-flux ocean, thus helping to characterize the efficacy of each forcing. The model yields good agreement with observed global temperature change and heat storage in the ocean. This agreement does not yield an improved assessment of climate sensitivity or a confirmation of the net climate forcing because of possible compensations with opposite changes of these quantities. Nevertheless, the results imply that observed global temperature change during the past 50 years is primarily a response to radiative forcings. It is also inferred that the planet is now out of radiation balance by 0.5 to 1 W/m2 and that additional global warming of about 0.5°C is already "in the pipeline."

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres
Volume107
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

Fingerprint

climate forcing
radiative forcing
climate
aerosol
aerosols
Aerosols
radiation balance
oceans
ocean
Stratospheric Ozone
simulation
irradiance
Climate models
global climate
heat storage
global warming
climate modeling
water vapor
Heat storage
Upper atmosphere

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Forestry
  • Oceanography
  • Aquatic Science
  • Ecology
  • Water Science and Technology
  • Soil Science
  • Geochemistry and Petrology
  • Earth-Surface Processes
  • Atmospheric Science
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • Palaeontology

Cite this

Hansen, J., Sato, M., Nazarenko, L., Ruedy, R., Lacis, A., Koch, D., ... Christy, J. (2002). Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, 107(18). https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1023798997
Hansen, J. ; Sato, M. ; Nazarenko, L. ; Ruedy, R. ; Lacis, A. ; Koch, D. ; Tegen, I. ; Hall, T. ; Shindell, D. ; Santer, B. ; Stone, P. ; Novakov, T. ; Thomason, L. ; Wang, R. ; Wang, Y. ; Jacob, D. ; Hollandsworth, S. ; Bishop, L. ; Logan, J. ; Thompson, Anne Mee ; Stolarski, R. ; Lean, J. ; Willson, R. ; Levitus, S. ; Antonov, J. ; Rayner, N. ; Parker, D. ; Christy, J. / Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations. In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 2002 ; Vol. 107, No. 18.
@article{bf0e75252d484cc587eb83fd504aebc4,
title = "Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations",
abstract = "We define the radiative forcings used in climate simulations with the SI2000 version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global climate model. These include temporal variations of well-mixed greenhouse gases, stratospheric aerosols, solar irradiance, ozone, stratospheric water vapor, and tropospheric aerosols. Our illustrations focus on the period 1951-2050, but we make the full data sets available for those forcings for which we have earlier data. We illustrate the global response to these forcings for the SI2000 model with specified sea surface temperature and with a simple Q-flux ocean, thus helping to characterize the efficacy of each forcing. The model yields good agreement with observed global temperature change and heat storage in the ocean. This agreement does not yield an improved assessment of climate sensitivity or a confirmation of the net climate forcing because of possible compensations with opposite changes of these quantities. Nevertheless, the results imply that observed global temperature change during the past 50 years is primarily a response to radiative forcings. It is also inferred that the planet is now out of radiation balance by 0.5 to 1 W/m2 and that additional global warming of about 0.5°C is already {"}in the pipeline.{"}",
author = "J. Hansen and M. Sato and L. Nazarenko and R. Ruedy and A. Lacis and D. Koch and I. Tegen and T. Hall and D. Shindell and B. Santer and P. Stone and T. Novakov and L. Thomason and R. Wang and Y. Wang and D. Jacob and S. Hollandsworth and L. Bishop and J. Logan and Thompson, {Anne Mee} and R. Stolarski and J. Lean and R. Willson and S. Levitus and J. Antonov and N. Rayner and D. Parker and J. Christy",
year = "2002",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1214/ss/1023798997",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "107",
journal = "Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres",
issn = "2169-897X",
number = "18",

}

Hansen, J, Sato, M, Nazarenko, L, Ruedy, R, Lacis, A, Koch, D, Tegen, I, Hall, T, Shindell, D, Santer, B, Stone, P, Novakov, T, Thomason, L, Wang, R, Wang, Y, Jacob, D, Hollandsworth, S, Bishop, L, Logan, J, Thompson, AM, Stolarski, R, Lean, J, Willson, R, Levitus, S, Antonov, J, Rayner, N, Parker, D & Christy, J 2002, 'Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations', Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, vol. 107, no. 18. https://doi.org/10.1214/ss/1023798997

Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations. / Hansen, J.; Sato, M.; Nazarenko, L.; Ruedy, R.; Lacis, A.; Koch, D.; Tegen, I.; Hall, T.; Shindell, D.; Santer, B.; Stone, P.; Novakov, T.; Thomason, L.; Wang, R.; Wang, Y.; Jacob, D.; Hollandsworth, S.; Bishop, L.; Logan, J.; Thompson, Anne Mee; Stolarski, R.; Lean, J.; Willson, R.; Levitus, S.; Antonov, J.; Rayner, N.; Parker, D.; Christy, J.

In: Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres, Vol. 107, No. 18, 01.01.2002.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Climate forcings in Goddard Institute for Space Studies SI2000 simulations

AU - Hansen, J.

AU - Sato, M.

AU - Nazarenko, L.

AU - Ruedy, R.

AU - Lacis, A.

AU - Koch, D.

AU - Tegen, I.

AU - Hall, T.

AU - Shindell, D.

AU - Santer, B.

AU - Stone, P.

AU - Novakov, T.

AU - Thomason, L.

AU - Wang, R.

AU - Wang, Y.

AU - Jacob, D.

AU - Hollandsworth, S.

AU - Bishop, L.

AU - Logan, J.

AU - Thompson, Anne Mee

AU - Stolarski, R.

AU - Lean, J.

AU - Willson, R.

AU - Levitus, S.

AU - Antonov, J.

AU - Rayner, N.

AU - Parker, D.

AU - Christy, J.

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - We define the radiative forcings used in climate simulations with the SI2000 version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global climate model. These include temporal variations of well-mixed greenhouse gases, stratospheric aerosols, solar irradiance, ozone, stratospheric water vapor, and tropospheric aerosols. Our illustrations focus on the period 1951-2050, but we make the full data sets available for those forcings for which we have earlier data. We illustrate the global response to these forcings for the SI2000 model with specified sea surface temperature and with a simple Q-flux ocean, thus helping to characterize the efficacy of each forcing. The model yields good agreement with observed global temperature change and heat storage in the ocean. This agreement does not yield an improved assessment of climate sensitivity or a confirmation of the net climate forcing because of possible compensations with opposite changes of these quantities. Nevertheless, the results imply that observed global temperature change during the past 50 years is primarily a response to radiative forcings. It is also inferred that the planet is now out of radiation balance by 0.5 to 1 W/m2 and that additional global warming of about 0.5°C is already "in the pipeline."

AB - We define the radiative forcings used in climate simulations with the SI2000 version of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global climate model. These include temporal variations of well-mixed greenhouse gases, stratospheric aerosols, solar irradiance, ozone, stratospheric water vapor, and tropospheric aerosols. Our illustrations focus on the period 1951-2050, but we make the full data sets available for those forcings for which we have earlier data. We illustrate the global response to these forcings for the SI2000 model with specified sea surface temperature and with a simple Q-flux ocean, thus helping to characterize the efficacy of each forcing. The model yields good agreement with observed global temperature change and heat storage in the ocean. This agreement does not yield an improved assessment of climate sensitivity or a confirmation of the net climate forcing because of possible compensations with opposite changes of these quantities. Nevertheless, the results imply that observed global temperature change during the past 50 years is primarily a response to radiative forcings. It is also inferred that the planet is now out of radiation balance by 0.5 to 1 W/m2 and that additional global warming of about 0.5°C is already "in the pipeline."

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33646500082&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33646500082&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1214/ss/1023798997

DO - 10.1214/ss/1023798997

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:33646500082

VL - 107

JO - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

JF - Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres

SN - 2169-897X

IS - 18

ER -