Trifluridine/tipiracil or TAS-102 (Taiho Oncology, Lonsurf®, Princeton, NJ, USA) is a combination tablet of trifluridine, a thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, a thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor, in a 1:0.5 molar ratio. This drug was first approved for use in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. Recently, the U S Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) have granted approval of trifluridine/tipiracil for treatment of metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adeno-carcinoma in patients following at least two lines of chemotherapy including fluoropyrimi-dine and platinum chemotherapy agents, as well as taxanes or irinotecan. This approval was granted after the findings from first a Phase II trial (EPOC1201) investigating trifluridine/ tipiracil, and later a global Phase III trial (TAGS trial) that compared trifluridine/tipiracil vs placebo with best supportive care. Both trials primarily utilized trifluridine/tipiracil at a dose of 35 mg/m2 twice daily. In the EPOC1201 trial, the primary end point of disease control rate was greater than 50% after eight weeks of therapy. The most common grade three or four adverse event was neutropenia; additional toxicities included leukopenia, anemia, and anorexia. In the TAGS trial, overall survival in patients treated with trifluri-dine/tipiracil (5.7 months) was significantly improved as compared to the placebo-controlled group (3.6 months). Treatment with trifluridine/tipiracil not only did not impair quality of life but also tended to reduce the risk of deterioration of quality of life. The results of these studies along with the subsequent FDA and EMA approval have generated an important breakthrough in regard to treatment options for patients with refractory metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)