We describe the occurrence and distribution of gaseous microemboli with real-time monitoring in a pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit and in the cerebral circulation of patients using the Emboli Detection and Classification (EDAC) system and transcranial Doppler (TCD). Four patients (weights 3.2-13.8 kg) were studied. EDAC monitors were located on the venous line and on the postfilter arterial line to measure gaseous microemboli in the CPB circuit. TCD was used to measure high-intensity transient signals (HITS) in the middle cerebral artery. Before the initiation of CPB, EDAC detected gaseous microemboli in two cases when giving volume through the arterial line. At the initiation of CPB, gross air appeared in the venous line and gaseous microemboli were detected in the arterial line in all patients. EDAC detected a total of 3192-14 699 gaseous microemboli in the arterial line during the whole CPB period, more than 99% of which were smaller than 40 microns. After cessation of CPB, EDAC detected gaseous microemboli in the arterial line in all cases. The TCD detected HITS in two cases (25 and 315), and detected no HITS in two cases. We observed that the venous line acted as a principal source of gaseous microemboli, particularly when using vacuum-assisted venous drainage, and that a significant number of these gaseous microemboli smaller than 40 microns were subsequently transferred to the patient. Using EDAC and TCD together could strengthen the monitoring of gaseous microemboli in the extracorporeal circuit and cerebral circulation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Medicine (miscellaneous)
- Biomedical Engineering