OBJECTIVE: Cryptococcus neoformans is a common opportunistic infection in adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, limited data exist for pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics of cryptococcosis in pediatric patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted atWest China Second University Hospital, Sichuan University. Data on risk factors, clinical manifestations, diagnosis methods, treatment, and prognosis were evaluated. Clinical characteristics associated with cryptococcal meningitis and disseminated cryptococcosis were compared. RESULTS: Twelve cases of cryptococcal meningitis and 11 cases of disseminated cryptococcosis were identified. Seventeen cases had no underlying disease, but 6 cases had malnutrition. Only 6 cases had a history of exposure to pigeon droppings. No cases had pulmonary cryptococcosis alone. Coughing, pulmonary moist rales, swollen lymph nodes, liver and spleen, and skin rashes were seen only in disseminated cryptococcosis. The prevalence of headache and positive meningeal irritation sign was higher in cryptococcal meningitis than disseminated cryptococcosis. The proportion of increase in eosinophils was higher in disseminated cryptococcosis than cryptococcal meningitis. The primary methods used for diagnosis included cerebrospinal fluid ink staining, cerebrospinal fluid culture, blood culture, and lymph node biopsy. Two patients stopped treatment, and 21 patients received antifungal therapy. The mortality rate was 39.13%. CONCLUSIONS: Cryptococcosis occurs in non-HIV infected and immunocompetent children. Cryptococcosis lacks specific clinical manifestations. Disseminated cryptococcosis commonly occurs in children. Clinicians should consider a diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis for children who present with unexplained long-term fever, mild cough, chest imaging inconsistent with clinical symptoms, lymphadenectasis, hepatosplenomegaly, and eosinophilia.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences|
|State||Published - 2015|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)