This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate constructs examining the child's functioning and contextual influences on functioning (e.g., parent, family, peer, community). ODD + CD and ODD only children were each distinguished from HCs by greater exposure to delinquent peers and lowered parental self-efficacy. In further comparisons to the HC group, ODD only status was associated with parental use of psychological aggression and more stressful life events, whereas ODD + CD status was associated with greater parental hostility. Relative to ODD alone status, ODD + CD status was comparable on all but one variable (greater parental hostility). Similar findings were reported using a subset of girls only. The characteristics that distinguish children with DBDs from controls and, in particular, ODD + CD from ODD only, bear implications for understanding and treating both CD and ODD.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Life-span and Life-course Studies