OBJECTIVE Components of the adipose tissue (AT) extracellular matrix (ECM) are recently discovered contributors to obesity-related cardiometabolic disease. We identified increased adipocyte expression of ECM-related clusterin (apolipoprotein J) in obese versus lean women by microarray. Our objective was to determine 1) whether subcutaneous AT adipocyte (SAd) clusterin and serum clusterin are associated with insulin resistance (IR) and known markers of cardiometabolic risk and 2) how clusterin may contribute to increased risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We validated increased clusterin expression in adipocytes from a separate group of 18 lean and 54 obese individuals. The relationship of clusterin gene expression and plasma clusterin with IR, cardiovascular biomarkers, and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) was then determined. Further investigations in human cultured cells and in aged LDLR 2 / 2 mice prone to development of obesity-associated complications were performed. RESULTS SAd clusterin correlated with IR, multiple CVD biomarkers, and CVD risk, independent of traditional risk factors. Circulating human clusterin exhibited similar associations. In human adipocytes, palmitate enhanced clusterin secretion, and in human hepatocytes, clusterin attenuated insulin signaling and APOA1 expression and stimulated hepatic gluconeogenesis. LRP2 (megalin), a clusterin receptor, highly expressed in liver, mediated these effects, which were inhibited by LRP2 siRNA. In response to Western diet feeding, an increase in adipocyte clusterin expression was associated with a progressive increase in liver fat, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis in aged LDLR 2 / 2 mice. CONCLUSIONS Adipocyte-derived clusterin is a novel ECM-related protein linking cardiometabolic disease and obesity through its actions in the liver.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Internal Medicine
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
- Advanced and Specialized Nursing