The authors have investigated apparent activation energies of volatiles emission when using (a) lignin alone, (b) collagen alone, or (c) lignin-collagen blends as a thermally-strengthened binder for high-density carbon product manufacturing. Apparent activation energies (Ea) computed by the Kissinger, the Weibull, and the Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) methods showed the same trends: with the highest Ea for lignin alone (245 kJ/mol), and the lowest for collagen alone (194 kJ/mol). The blends pyrolysis exhibited synergistic presence of collagen, which could help initiate the pyrolysis mass loss reactions at 250–400 °C, and participate in the condensation reactions of aromatic fragments at 400–800 °C, leading to less emission of some gaseous products and more preservation of residual char. In prior Penn State work, it was observed that this thermally-induced preservation and condensation of aromatic structure increased the binding strength of the lignin-collagen binders. The work herein offers thermogravimetric concurrence and insight to this thermal-binding synergism.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Analytical Chemistry
- Fuel Technology