Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are noninvasive techniques recently used to investigate cortical motor physiology. However, these modalities measure different phenomena, and in studies of human motor control they have given inconsistent results. We have developed a reproducible technique which co-registers TMS and fMRI, using a frameless method. In four normal subjects, the TMS map and fMRI activation were present on the primary motor cortex contralateral to the target hand, with some extension into primary sensory cortex. fMRI activation alone was also present in the medial motor cortex bilaterally and in the sensorimotor cortex ipsilateral to the target hand. This technique allows a more comprehensive evaluation of the physiologic events involved in motor control.
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