Cognitive Reserve Attenuates the Effect of Disability on Depression in Multiple Sclerosis

Margaret H. Cadden, Erin T. Guty, Peter Andrew Arnett

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: The current study explored the moderating role of cognitive reserve on the relationship between disability and depression in a sample of individuals in which brain pathology is thought to contribute to depression (multiple sclerosis; MS). METHOD: Fifty-four individuals with MS were examined. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). In addition to collecting demographic (education) and disease burden (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS) related variables, participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and psychosocial questionnaires. Cognitive reserve (CR) was conceptualized in two ways: Fixed CR and Malleable CR. Fixed CR was measured using years of education and crystallized intelligence (Shipley Vocabulary). Malleable CR was operationalized as a composite of measures from the Cognitive Heath Questionnaire (CHQ). Two regressions on depression (BDI-FS) examining either type of cognitive reserve, EDSS, and their interactions were explored. Results: The interaction between EDSS and both conceptualizations of cognitive reserve were significant, t(50) = -2.60, p = .013, PRE = .12 (Fixed CR); t(47) = -2.02, p = .049, PRE = .08 (Malleable CR). Simple effects testing revealed the same pattern regardless of the type of cognitive reserve examined; EDSS predicted depression only in those with low cognitive reserve. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between disability and depression in MS; disability does not appear to influence depression in those with high cognitive reserve.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)495-502
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Volume34
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2019

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Cognitive Reserve
Multiple Sclerosis
Depression
Education
Equipment and Supplies
Vocabulary
Neuropsychological Tests

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

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title = "Cognitive Reserve Attenuates the Effect of Disability on Depression in Multiple Sclerosis",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: The current study explored the moderating role of cognitive reserve on the relationship between disability and depression in a sample of individuals in which brain pathology is thought to contribute to depression (multiple sclerosis; MS). METHOD: Fifty-four individuals with MS were examined. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). In addition to collecting demographic (education) and disease burden (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS) related variables, participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and psychosocial questionnaires. Cognitive reserve (CR) was conceptualized in two ways: Fixed CR and Malleable CR. Fixed CR was measured using years of education and crystallized intelligence (Shipley Vocabulary). Malleable CR was operationalized as a composite of measures from the Cognitive Heath Questionnaire (CHQ). Two regressions on depression (BDI-FS) examining either type of cognitive reserve, EDSS, and their interactions were explored. Results: The interaction between EDSS and both conceptualizations of cognitive reserve were significant, t(50) = -2.60, p = .013, PRE = .12 (Fixed CR); t(47) = -2.02, p = .049, PRE = .08 (Malleable CR). Simple effects testing revealed the same pattern regardless of the type of cognitive reserve examined; EDSS predicted depression only in those with low cognitive reserve. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between disability and depression in MS; disability does not appear to influence depression in those with high cognitive reserve.",
author = "Cadden, {Margaret H.} and Guty, {Erin T.} and Arnett, {Peter Andrew}",
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AB - OBJECTIVE: The current study explored the moderating role of cognitive reserve on the relationship between disability and depression in a sample of individuals in which brain pathology is thought to contribute to depression (multiple sclerosis; MS). METHOD: Fifty-four individuals with MS were examined. Depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-Fast Screen (BDI-FS). In addition to collecting demographic (education) and disease burden (Expanded Disability Status Scale; EDSS) related variables, participants completed a neuropsychological test battery and psychosocial questionnaires. Cognitive reserve (CR) was conceptualized in two ways: Fixed CR and Malleable CR. Fixed CR was measured using years of education and crystallized intelligence (Shipley Vocabulary). Malleable CR was operationalized as a composite of measures from the Cognitive Heath Questionnaire (CHQ). Two regressions on depression (BDI-FS) examining either type of cognitive reserve, EDSS, and their interactions were explored. Results: The interaction between EDSS and both conceptualizations of cognitive reserve were significant, t(50) = -2.60, p = .013, PRE = .12 (Fixed CR); t(47) = -2.02, p = .049, PRE = .08 (Malleable CR). Simple effects testing revealed the same pattern regardless of the type of cognitive reserve examined; EDSS predicted depression only in those with low cognitive reserve. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive reserve moderates the relationship between disability and depression in MS; disability does not appear to influence depression in those with high cognitive reserve.

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