Cold sintering and electrical characterization of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics

Dixiong Wang, Hanzheng Guo, Carl S. Morandi, Clive A. Randall, Susan Trolier-McKinstry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper describes a cold sintering process for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics and the associated processing-property relations. Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 has a very small, incongruent solubility that is a challenge during cold sintering. To circumvent this, a Pb(NO3)2 solution was used as the transient liquid phase. A bimodal lead zirconate titanate powder was densified to a relative density of 89% by cold sintering at 300 °C and 500 MPa. After the cold sintering step, the permittivity was 200, and the dielectric loss was 2.0%. A second heat-treatment involving a 3 h anneal at 900 °C increased the relative density to 99%; the resulting relative dielectric permittivity was 1300 at room temperature and 100 kHz. The samples showed well-defined ferroelectric hysteresis loops, having a remanent polarization of 28 μC/cm2. On poling, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was ∼200 pC/N. With a 700 °C 3 h post-annealing, samples show a lower room temperature relative permittivity (950 at 100 kHz), but a 24 h hold time at 700 °C produces ceramics where there is an improved relative dielectric constant (1050 at 100 kHz).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number016101
JournalAPL Materials
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

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Piezoelectric ceramics
Permittivity
Sintering
Remanence
Dielectric losses
Hysteresis loops
Powders
Ferroelectric materials
Solubility
Lead
Heat treatment
Annealing
Temperature
lead titanate zirconate
Liquids
Processing

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)

Cite this

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title = "Cold sintering and electrical characterization of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics",
abstract = "This paper describes a cold sintering process for Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramics and the associated processing-property relations. Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 has a very small, incongruent solubility that is a challenge during cold sintering. To circumvent this, a Pb(NO3)2 solution was used as the transient liquid phase. A bimodal lead zirconate titanate powder was densified to a relative density of 89{\%} by cold sintering at 300 °C and 500 MPa. After the cold sintering step, the permittivity was 200, and the dielectric loss was 2.0{\%}. A second heat-treatment involving a 3 h anneal at 900 °C increased the relative density to 99{\%}; the resulting relative dielectric permittivity was 1300 at room temperature and 100 kHz. The samples showed well-defined ferroelectric hysteresis loops, having a remanent polarization of 28 μC/cm2. On poling, the piezoelectric coefficient d33 was ∼200 pC/N. With a 700 °C 3 h post-annealing, samples show a lower room temperature relative permittivity (950 at 100 kHz), but a 24 h hold time at 700 °C produces ceramics where there is an improved relative dielectric constant (1050 at 100 kHz).",
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Cold sintering and electrical characterization of lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric ceramics. / Wang, Dixiong; Guo, Hanzheng; Morandi, Carl S.; Randall, Clive A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan.

In: APL Materials, Vol. 6, No. 1, 016101, 01.01.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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