Purpose of review: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease, either Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis, are at an increased risk for developing colorectal carcinoma. Recent findings: Surveillance colonoscopy, although never formally evaluated in a prospective controlled trial, is performed in an effort to reduce this risk. Novel methods of detecting dysplasia are constantly being evaluated, including chromoendoscopy and biomarkers of carcinoma, in an attempt to stratify patients who are at a higher risk of developing high-grade dysplasia or carcinoma. Summary: Because of the potential impact on quality of life and life expectancy, an optimal strategy for reducing the risk of developing colorectal cancer in patients with inflammatory bowel disease needs to be defined.
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