Data from 213 cases of simultaneous carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting (CEN/CABG) were analyzed (1980-1996). There were 154 males (72.3%), and 59 females (27.7%), (mean age: 65.6 years, range: 42-83). One hundred and thirty-two patients (62.0%) had angina, 58 (37.2%) had myocardial infarction, and 23 (10.8%) had congestive heart failure. Symptomatic cerebrovascular disease was present in 89 patients (41.7%). One hundred and twenty-two patients (57.2%) had three-vessel coronary artery disease, 41 (19.2%) had left main disease, and 27 (12.6%) had a low ejection fraction (ejection fraction ≤30%). Significant (≥75% diameter reduction) stenosis was present in 168 (78.8%) of the operated carotid arteries. The contralateral internal carotid artery was severely stenosed or occluded in 35 patients (16.4%). The hospital mortality rate was 5.6% (12 patients). The cause of death was cardiac in ten patients (4.6%), and neurologic in two (1%). Eleven patients (5.1%) developed a stroke postoperatively; eight strokes were ipsilateral to the operated artery, and six were permanent. Myocardial infarction occurred in five patients (2.3%). Independent predictors of early mortality were age >62 years, hypertension, and postoperative stroke (p < 0.05). Male sex was the only independent predictor of neurologic morbidity (p < 0.05). Late follow-up data were obtained for 163 (81.0%) patients (mean: 54.8 months, range: 1-168). Four (9.3%) out of the 43 late deaths were attributed to strokes. There were three (1.8%) late ipsilateral strokes, and five (3.1%) contralateral strokes. The 5- and 10- year survival probabilities were 75 ± 4%, and 52 ± 6.9%. The freedom from late ipsilateral neurologic morbidity at 5 and 10 years were 97 ± 1.7% and 90 ± 4.0%, respectively. Taken together, the results indicate that combined carotid endarterectomy and coronary artery bypass grafting can be performed safely in this high-risk group of patients. Excellent long-term freedom from stroke can be expected.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine