Background: When glucose is added to Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in non-fermentable carbon sources, genes encoding ribosomal, cell-cycle, and glycolytic proteins are induced. By contrast, genes involved in mitochondrial functions, gluconeogenesis, and the utilization of other carbon sources are repressed. Glucose also causes the activation of the plasma membrane ATPase and the inactivation of gluconeogenic enzymes and mitochondrial enzymes. The goals of this study were to use the iTRAQ-labeling mass spectrometry technique to identify proteins whose relative levels change in response to glucose re-feeding and to correlate changes in protein abundance with changes in transcription and enzymatic activities. We used an experimental condition that causes the degradation of gluconeogenic enzymes when glucose starved cells are replenished with glucose. Identification of these enzymes as being down-regulated by glucose served as an internal control. Furthermore, we sought to identify new proteins that were either up-regulated or down-regulated by glucose.Results: We have identified new and known proteins that change their relative levels in cells that were transferred from medium containing low glucose to medium containing high glucose. Up-regulated proteins included ribosomal subunits, proteins involved in protein translation, and the plasma membrane ATPase. Down-regulated proteins included small heat shock proteins, mitochondrial proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and gluconeogenic enzymes. Ach1p is involved in acetate metabolism and is also down-regulated by glucose.Conclusions: We have identified known proteins that have previously been reported to be regulated by glucose as well as new glucose-regulated proteins. Up-regulation of ribosomal proteins and proteins involved in translation may lead to an increase in protein synthesis and in nutrient uptake. Down-regulation of glycolytic enzymes, gluconeogenic enzymes, and mitochondrial proteins may result in changes in glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and mitochondrial functions. These changes may be beneficial for glucose-starved cells to adapt to the addition of glucose.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Biology