Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects

Steven J. Santner, Bradley Albertson, Gui Yuan Zhang, Guang Hua Zhang, Michael Santulli, Christina Wang, Laurence M. Demers, Cedric Shackleton, Richard J. Santen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

120 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Clinically apparent prostate cancer occurs more commonly among Caucasians living in Western countries than in Chinese in the Far East. Prior studies demonstrated diminished facial and body hair and lower levels of plasma 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide in Chinese than in Caucasian men. Based upon these findings, investigators postulated that Chinese men could have diminished 5α-reductase activity with a resultant decrease in prostate tissue dihydrotestosterone levels and clinically apparent prostate cancer. An alternative hypothesis suggests that decreased 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide levels might reflect reduced production of androgenic ketosteroid precursors as a result of genetic or environmental factors. The present study examined 5α- reductase activity, androgenic ketosteroid precursors, and the influence of genetic and environmental/dietary factors in groups of Chinese and Caucasian men. We found no significant differences in the ratios of 5β-:5α-reduced urinary steroids (a marker of 5α-reductase activity) between Chinese subjects living in Beijing, China, and Caucasians living in Pennsylvania. To enhance the sensitivity of detection, we used an isotopic kinetic method to directly measure 5α-reductase activity and found no difference in testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion ratios between groups. Then, addressing the alternative hypothesis, we found that the Caucasian subjects excreted significantly higher levels of individual and total androgenic ketosteroids than did their Chinese counterparts. To distinguish genetic from environmental/dietary factors as a cause of these differences, we compared Chinese men living in Pennsylvania and a similar group living in Beijing, China. We detected a reduction in testosterone production rates and total plasma testosterone and sex hormone-binding levels, but not in testosterone MCRs in Beijing Chinese as a opposed to those living in Pennsylvania. Comparing Pennsylvania Chinese with their Caucasian counterparts, we detected no significant differences in total testosterone, free and weakly bound testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin levels, and testosterone production rates. Taken together, these studies suggest that environmental/dietary, but not genetic, factors influence androgen production and explain the differences between Caucasian and Chinese men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2104-2109
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume83
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 11 1998

Fingerprint

Metabolism
Androgens
Testosterone
Ketosteroids
Oxidoreductases
Dihydrotestosterone
Glucuronides
China
Prostatic Neoplasms
Plasmas
Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin
Far East
Gonadal Steroid Hormones
Hair
Prostate
Steroids
Research Personnel
Tissue
Kinetics
Beijing

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Biochemistry
  • Endocrinology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Biochemistry, medical

Cite this

Santner, S. J., Albertson, B., Zhang, G. Y., Zhang, G. H., Santulli, M., Wang, C., ... Santen, R. J. (1998). Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 83(6), 2104-2109. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.83.6.2104
Santner, Steven J. ; Albertson, Bradley ; Zhang, Gui Yuan ; Zhang, Guang Hua ; Santulli, Michael ; Wang, Christina ; Demers, Laurence M. ; Shackleton, Cedric ; Santen, Richard J. / Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 1998 ; Vol. 83, No. 6. pp. 2104-2109.
@article{438f3f50cd9f4f77901f9253b425c1f8,
title = "Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects",
abstract = "Clinically apparent prostate cancer occurs more commonly among Caucasians living in Western countries than in Chinese in the Far East. Prior studies demonstrated diminished facial and body hair and lower levels of plasma 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide in Chinese than in Caucasian men. Based upon these findings, investigators postulated that Chinese men could have diminished 5α-reductase activity with a resultant decrease in prostate tissue dihydrotestosterone levels and clinically apparent prostate cancer. An alternative hypothesis suggests that decreased 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide levels might reflect reduced production of androgenic ketosteroid precursors as a result of genetic or environmental factors. The present study examined 5α- reductase activity, androgenic ketosteroid precursors, and the influence of genetic and environmental/dietary factors in groups of Chinese and Caucasian men. We found no significant differences in the ratios of 5β-:5α-reduced urinary steroids (a marker of 5α-reductase activity) between Chinese subjects living in Beijing, China, and Caucasians living in Pennsylvania. To enhance the sensitivity of detection, we used an isotopic kinetic method to directly measure 5α-reductase activity and found no difference in testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion ratios between groups. Then, addressing the alternative hypothesis, we found that the Caucasian subjects excreted significantly higher levels of individual and total androgenic ketosteroids than did their Chinese counterparts. To distinguish genetic from environmental/dietary factors as a cause of these differences, we compared Chinese men living in Pennsylvania and a similar group living in Beijing, China. We detected a reduction in testosterone production rates and total plasma testosterone and sex hormone-binding levels, but not in testosterone MCRs in Beijing Chinese as a opposed to those living in Pennsylvania. Comparing Pennsylvania Chinese with their Caucasian counterparts, we detected no significant differences in total testosterone, free and weakly bound testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin levels, and testosterone production rates. Taken together, these studies suggest that environmental/dietary, but not genetic, factors influence androgen production and explain the differences between Caucasian and Chinese men.",
author = "Santner, {Steven J.} and Bradley Albertson and Zhang, {Gui Yuan} and Zhang, {Guang Hua} and Michael Santulli and Christina Wang and Demers, {Laurence M.} and Cedric Shackleton and Santen, {Richard J.}",
year = "1998",
month = "11",
day = "11",
doi = "10.1210/jc.83.6.2104",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "83",
pages = "2104--2109",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism",
issn = "0021-972X",
publisher = "The Endocrine Society",
number = "6",

}

Santner, SJ, Albertson, B, Zhang, GY, Zhang, GH, Santulli, M, Wang, C, Demers, LM, Shackleton, C & Santen, RJ 1998, 'Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects', Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 83, no. 6, pp. 2104-2109. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.83.6.2104

Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects. / Santner, Steven J.; Albertson, Bradley; Zhang, Gui Yuan; Zhang, Guang Hua; Santulli, Michael; Wang, Christina; Demers, Laurence M.; Shackleton, Cedric; Santen, Richard J.

In: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 83, No. 6, 11.11.1998, p. 2104-2109.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparative rates of androgen production and metabolism in Caucasian and Chinese subjects

AU - Santner, Steven J.

AU - Albertson, Bradley

AU - Zhang, Gui Yuan

AU - Zhang, Guang Hua

AU - Santulli, Michael

AU - Wang, Christina

AU - Demers, Laurence M.

AU - Shackleton, Cedric

AU - Santen, Richard J.

PY - 1998/11/11

Y1 - 1998/11/11

N2 - Clinically apparent prostate cancer occurs more commonly among Caucasians living in Western countries than in Chinese in the Far East. Prior studies demonstrated diminished facial and body hair and lower levels of plasma 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide in Chinese than in Caucasian men. Based upon these findings, investigators postulated that Chinese men could have diminished 5α-reductase activity with a resultant decrease in prostate tissue dihydrotestosterone levels and clinically apparent prostate cancer. An alternative hypothesis suggests that decreased 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide levels might reflect reduced production of androgenic ketosteroid precursors as a result of genetic or environmental factors. The present study examined 5α- reductase activity, androgenic ketosteroid precursors, and the influence of genetic and environmental/dietary factors in groups of Chinese and Caucasian men. We found no significant differences in the ratios of 5β-:5α-reduced urinary steroids (a marker of 5α-reductase activity) between Chinese subjects living in Beijing, China, and Caucasians living in Pennsylvania. To enhance the sensitivity of detection, we used an isotopic kinetic method to directly measure 5α-reductase activity and found no difference in testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion ratios between groups. Then, addressing the alternative hypothesis, we found that the Caucasian subjects excreted significantly higher levels of individual and total androgenic ketosteroids than did their Chinese counterparts. To distinguish genetic from environmental/dietary factors as a cause of these differences, we compared Chinese men living in Pennsylvania and a similar group living in Beijing, China. We detected a reduction in testosterone production rates and total plasma testosterone and sex hormone-binding levels, but not in testosterone MCRs in Beijing Chinese as a opposed to those living in Pennsylvania. Comparing Pennsylvania Chinese with their Caucasian counterparts, we detected no significant differences in total testosterone, free and weakly bound testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin levels, and testosterone production rates. Taken together, these studies suggest that environmental/dietary, but not genetic, factors influence androgen production and explain the differences between Caucasian and Chinese men.

AB - Clinically apparent prostate cancer occurs more commonly among Caucasians living in Western countries than in Chinese in the Far East. Prior studies demonstrated diminished facial and body hair and lower levels of plasma 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide in Chinese than in Caucasian men. Based upon these findings, investigators postulated that Chinese men could have diminished 5α-reductase activity with a resultant decrease in prostate tissue dihydrotestosterone levels and clinically apparent prostate cancer. An alternative hypothesis suggests that decreased 3α-androstanediol glucuronide and androsterone glucuronide levels might reflect reduced production of androgenic ketosteroid precursors as a result of genetic or environmental factors. The present study examined 5α- reductase activity, androgenic ketosteroid precursors, and the influence of genetic and environmental/dietary factors in groups of Chinese and Caucasian men. We found no significant differences in the ratios of 5β-:5α-reduced urinary steroids (a marker of 5α-reductase activity) between Chinese subjects living in Beijing, China, and Caucasians living in Pennsylvania. To enhance the sensitivity of detection, we used an isotopic kinetic method to directly measure 5α-reductase activity and found no difference in testosterone to dihydrotestosterone conversion ratios between groups. Then, addressing the alternative hypothesis, we found that the Caucasian subjects excreted significantly higher levels of individual and total androgenic ketosteroids than did their Chinese counterparts. To distinguish genetic from environmental/dietary factors as a cause of these differences, we compared Chinese men living in Pennsylvania and a similar group living in Beijing, China. We detected a reduction in testosterone production rates and total plasma testosterone and sex hormone-binding levels, but not in testosterone MCRs in Beijing Chinese as a opposed to those living in Pennsylvania. Comparing Pennsylvania Chinese with their Caucasian counterparts, we detected no significant differences in total testosterone, free and weakly bound testosterone, sex hormone-binding globulin levels, and testosterone production rates. Taken together, these studies suggest that environmental/dietary, but not genetic, factors influence androgen production and explain the differences between Caucasian and Chinese men.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031732511&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031732511&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1210/jc.83.6.2104

DO - 10.1210/jc.83.6.2104

M3 - Article

C2 - 9626146

AN - SCOPUS:0031732511

VL - 83

SP - 2104

EP - 2109

JO - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

JF - Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism

SN - 0021-972X

IS - 6

ER -