Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. Adult Smokers, 2001-2006

Ralph S. Caraballo, David B. Holiday, Steven D. Stellman, Paul D. Mowery, Gary A. Giovino, Joshua E. Muscat, Michael P. Eriksen, John T. Bernert, Patricia A. Richter, Lynn T. Kozlowski

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. Objective: To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Method: Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Results: Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. Conclusions: The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Impact: Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1329-1340
Number of pages12
JournalCancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention
Volume20
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2011

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Menthol
Cotinine
Tobacco Products
Serum
Smoking
United States Federal Trade Commission
Aptitude
Nutrition Surveys
United States Food and Drug Administration
Nicotine
Smoke
Tobacco

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Epidemiology
  • Oncology

Cite this

Caraballo, Ralph S. ; Holiday, David B. ; Stellman, Steven D. ; Mowery, Paul D. ; Giovino, Gary A. ; Muscat, Joshua E. ; Eriksen, Michael P. ; Bernert, John T. ; Richter, Patricia A. ; Kozlowski, Lynn T. / Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. Adult Smokers, 2001-2006. In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. 2011 ; Vol. 20, No. 7. pp. 1329-1340.
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abstract = "Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. Objective: To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Method: Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Results: Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. Conclusions: The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Impact: Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design.",
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Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. Adult Smokers, 2001-2006. / Caraballo, Ralph S.; Holiday, David B.; Stellman, Steven D.; Mowery, Paul D.; Giovino, Gary A.; Muscat, Joshua E.; Eriksen, Michael P.; Bernert, John T.; Richter, Patricia A.; Kozlowski, Lynn T.

In: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, Vol. 20, No. 7, 01.07.2011, p. 1329-1340.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Comparison of serum cotinine concentration within and across smokers of menthol and nonmenthol cigarette brands among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white U.S. Adult Smokers, 2001-2006

AU - Caraballo, Ralph S.

AU - Holiday, David B.

AU - Stellman, Steven D.

AU - Mowery, Paul D.

AU - Giovino, Gary A.

AU - Muscat, Joshua E.

AU - Eriksen, Michael P.

AU - Bernert, John T.

AU - Richter, Patricia A.

AU - Kozlowski, Lynn T.

PY - 2011/7/1

Y1 - 2011/7/1

N2 - Background: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is examining options for regulating menthol content in cigarettes. There are many pharmacologic properties of menthol that may facilitate exposure to tobacco smoke, and it has been suggested that the preference for menthol cigarettes in black smokers accounts for their higher cotinine levels. Objective: To assess cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted cotinine levels in relation to smoking a menthol or nonmenthol cigarette brand among non-Hispanic black and white U.S. adult smokers under natural smoking conditions. Method: Serum cotinine concentrations were measured in 1,943 smokers participating in the 2001 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). The effect of smoking a menthol brand on cigarettes smoked per day-adjusted serum cotinine levels in these two populations was modeled by adjusting for sex, age, number of smokers living in the home, body weight, time since last smoked, and FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-measured nicotine levels. The 8- or 12-digit Universal Product Code (UPC) on the cigarette label was used to determine the cigarette brand and whether it was menthol. Results: Smoking a menthol cigarette brand versus smoking a nonmenthol cigarette brand was not associated (P ≥ 0.05) with mean serum cotinine concentration in either black or white smokers. Conclusions: The higher levels of cotinine observed in black smokers compared with white smokers are not explained by their higher preference for menthol cigarette brands. Impact: Further studies like ours are needed to improve our ability to understand health consequences of future changes in tobacco product design.

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