Comparison of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for next generation power plants using TRACE

Grant Garrett, Justin Kyle Watson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The purpose of this study is to compare the use of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for Generation IV and fusion power plants. In this study, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal hydraulics and neutronics coupled code TRAC/Relap Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE) was used to build and simulate a 600 MWth fusion Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) system that was cooled by either water, helium, or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations, along with certain design criteria, were used to determine that water was the best coolant for the system of this study. For the operating conditions used in this research, water was able to keep the temperature of certain materials below their maximum temperatures much easier than the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. Specifically, beryllium was used as a material in the system and was determined to have a maximum temperature of 800 °C for its applications in this study (Mitteau et al., 2017). Additionally, this temperature limit restricts the efficiency and capabilities of the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. There is also uncertainty associated with the turbine efficiencies used in this study. This introduces uncertainty into the overall efficiency of the system for each coolant. So, the overall efficiency is not as important of a parameter in determining the best coolant for the system in this study as other parameters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)292-302
Number of pages11
JournalAnnals of Nuclear Energy
Volume126
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2019

Fingerprint

Coolants
Helium
Carbon dioxide
Power plants
Engines
Water
Fusion reactions
Temperature
Beryllium
Turbines
Hydraulics
Uncertainty

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Nuclear Energy and Engineering

Cite this

@article{6d2e4f23c02c4c11b7ff74753e3d0948,
title = "Comparison of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for next generation power plants using TRACE",
abstract = "The purpose of this study is to compare the use of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for Generation IV and fusion power plants. In this study, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal hydraulics and neutronics coupled code TRAC/Relap Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE) was used to build and simulate a 600 MWth fusion Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) system that was cooled by either water, helium, or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations, along with certain design criteria, were used to determine that water was the best coolant for the system of this study. For the operating conditions used in this research, water was able to keep the temperature of certain materials below their maximum temperatures much easier than the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. Specifically, beryllium was used as a material in the system and was determined to have a maximum temperature of 800 °C for its applications in this study (Mitteau et al., 2017). Additionally, this temperature limit restricts the efficiency and capabilities of the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. There is also uncertainty associated with the turbine efficiencies used in this study. This introduces uncertainty into the overall efficiency of the system for each coolant. So, the overall efficiency is not as important of a parameter in determining the best coolant for the system in this study as other parameters.",
author = "Grant Garrett and Watson, {Justin Kyle}",
year = "2019",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.anucene.2018.11.016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "126",
pages = "292--302",
journal = "Annals of Nuclear Energy",
issn = "0306-4549",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",

}

Comparison of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for next generation power plants using TRACE. / Garrett, Grant; Watson, Justin Kyle.

In: Annals of Nuclear Energy, Vol. 126, 01.04.2019, p. 292-302.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparison of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for next generation power plants using TRACE

AU - Garrett, Grant

AU - Watson, Justin Kyle

PY - 2019/4/1

Y1 - 2019/4/1

N2 - The purpose of this study is to compare the use of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for Generation IV and fusion power plants. In this study, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal hydraulics and neutronics coupled code TRAC/Relap Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE) was used to build and simulate a 600 MWth fusion Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) system that was cooled by either water, helium, or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations, along with certain design criteria, were used to determine that water was the best coolant for the system of this study. For the operating conditions used in this research, water was able to keep the temperature of certain materials below their maximum temperatures much easier than the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. Specifically, beryllium was used as a material in the system and was determined to have a maximum temperature of 800 °C for its applications in this study (Mitteau et al., 2017). Additionally, this temperature limit restricts the efficiency and capabilities of the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. There is also uncertainty associated with the turbine efficiencies used in this study. This introduces uncertainty into the overall efficiency of the system for each coolant. So, the overall efficiency is not as important of a parameter in determining the best coolant for the system in this study as other parameters.

AB - The purpose of this study is to compare the use of water, helium, and carbon dioxide as coolants for Generation IV and fusion power plants. In this study, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) thermal hydraulics and neutronics coupled code TRAC/Relap Advanced Computational Engine (TRACE) was used to build and simulate a 600 MWth fusion Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) system that was cooled by either water, helium, or carbon dioxide. The results from the simulations, along with certain design criteria, were used to determine that water was the best coolant for the system of this study. For the operating conditions used in this research, water was able to keep the temperature of certain materials below their maximum temperatures much easier than the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. Specifically, beryllium was used as a material in the system and was determined to have a maximum temperature of 800 °C for its applications in this study (Mitteau et al., 2017). Additionally, this temperature limit restricts the efficiency and capabilities of the helium and carbon dioxide cooled systems. There is also uncertainty associated with the turbine efficiencies used in this study. This introduces uncertainty into the overall efficiency of the system for each coolant. So, the overall efficiency is not as important of a parameter in determining the best coolant for the system in this study as other parameters.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056832977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85056832977&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.anucene.2018.11.016

DO - 10.1016/j.anucene.2018.11.016

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85056832977

VL - 126

SP - 292

EP - 302

JO - Annals of Nuclear Energy

JF - Annals of Nuclear Energy

SN - 0306-4549

ER -