A complete fault analysis scheme for long transmission line represented with distributed parameters is proposed in this paper. The synchronized samples from both ends of the transmission line are the data sources for this scheme. The paper derives a specific feature which equals to zero for normal situation and external faults, and is close to fault current during the internal faults. This feature is used for fault detection and classification. Fault location is then implemented by selecting different methods according to the classified fault type. The results from a comprehensive evaluation study demonstrate an excellent performance of entire fault analysis.