Complete sequences of the highly rearranged molluscan mitochondrial genomes of the scaphopod Graptacme eborea and the bivalve Mytilus edulis

Jeffrey L. Boore, Monica Medina, Lewis A. Rosenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

107 Scopus citations


We have determined the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the scaphopod mollusk Graptacme eborea (14,492 nts) and completed the sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the bivalve mollusk Mytilus edulis (16,740 nts). (The name Graptacme eborea is a revision of the species formerly known as Dentalium eboreum.) G. eborea mtDNA contains the 37 genes that are typically found and has the genes divided about evenly between the two strands, but M. edulis contains an extra trnM and is missing atp8, and it has all genes on the same strand. Each has a highly rearranged gene order relative to each other and to all other studied mtDNAs. G. eborea mtDNA has almost no strand skew, but the coding strand of M. edulis mtDNA is very rich in G and T. This is reflected in differential codon usage patterns and even in amino acid compositions. G. eborea mtDNA has fewer noncoding nucleotides than any other mtDNA studied to date, with the largest noncoding region only 24 nt long. Phylogenetic analysis using 2,420 aligned amino acid positions of concatenated proteins weakly supports an association of the scaphopod with gastropods to the exclusion of Bivalvia, Cephalopoda, and Polyplacophora, but it is generally unable to convincingly resolve the relationships among major groups of the Lophotrochozoa, in contrast to the good resolution seen for several other major metazoan groups.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1492-1503
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular biology and evolution
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 1 2004


All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics

Cite this