Composition, structure, and historical development of northern red oak stands along an edaphic gradient in north-central Wisconsin

G. J. Nowacki, Marc David Abrams, C. G. Lorimer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

82 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Forty-six relatively undisturbed Quercus rubra stands were surveyed. DCA and overstory importance values were used to separate stands into 4 groups: Q. rubra-Acer saccharum, Q. rubra-A. rubrum-A. saccharum, Q. rubra-Q. alba-A. rubrum, and Q. rubra-A. rubrum-Betula papyrifera. Stand position along DCA axis I was significantly correlated with soil texture, which was interpreted as an edaphic gradient from rich, mesic to poorer, dry mesic sites. All groups were dominated by overstory northern red oak; however, changes in understory dominance from sugar maple to red maple occurred from mesic to dry mesic groups. Moreover, basal area and age decreased and shrub cover increased from mesic to dry mesic groups. Historical data suggest that northern red oak was relatively unimportant in presettlement forests in the area, with the exception of transitional dry mesic sites. Most of north-central Wisconsin was completely logged and physical evidence of fire was found within or near 2/3 of the stands surveyed. These disturbances are thought to have created conditions favorable for northern red oak establishment, leading to its increased dominance in the region. Northern red oak were consistently the oldest and largest individuals in all stands and formed an even-aged canopy. Substantial northern red oak recruitment into the tree size class seemed to last for only 25-30 yr after disturbance (probably until canopy closure), after which only shade-tolerant species were successful in the understory. Under today's low disturbance regime, northern red oak may be restricted to a single generation with a strong likelihood of being replaced by sugar maple on mesic sites, a combination of sugar and red maple on transitional sites and red maple on dry mesic sites. -from Authors

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)276-292
Number of pages17
JournalForest Science
Volume36
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990

Fingerprint

Quercus rubra
Acer rubrum
sugar
overstory
disturbance
Acer saccharum subsp. saccharum
understory
canopy
Acer saccharum
soil texture
basal area
oak
shrub
tree classes
Betula papyrifera
shade
shrubs

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Forestry
  • Ecology
  • Ecological Modeling

Cite this

@article{fac20181d50d432a9f957cedbd5e1fcc,
title = "Composition, structure, and historical development of northern red oak stands along an edaphic gradient in north-central Wisconsin",
abstract = "Forty-six relatively undisturbed Quercus rubra stands were surveyed. DCA and overstory importance values were used to separate stands into 4 groups: Q. rubra-Acer saccharum, Q. rubra-A. rubrum-A. saccharum, Q. rubra-Q. alba-A. rubrum, and Q. rubra-A. rubrum-Betula papyrifera. Stand position along DCA axis I was significantly correlated with soil texture, which was interpreted as an edaphic gradient from rich, mesic to poorer, dry mesic sites. All groups were dominated by overstory northern red oak; however, changes in understory dominance from sugar maple to red maple occurred from mesic to dry mesic groups. Moreover, basal area and age decreased and shrub cover increased from mesic to dry mesic groups. Historical data suggest that northern red oak was relatively unimportant in presettlement forests in the area, with the exception of transitional dry mesic sites. Most of north-central Wisconsin was completely logged and physical evidence of fire was found within or near 2/3 of the stands surveyed. These disturbances are thought to have created conditions favorable for northern red oak establishment, leading to its increased dominance in the region. Northern red oak were consistently the oldest and largest individuals in all stands and formed an even-aged canopy. Substantial northern red oak recruitment into the tree size class seemed to last for only 25-30 yr after disturbance (probably until canopy closure), after which only shade-tolerant species were successful in the understory. Under today's low disturbance regime, northern red oak may be restricted to a single generation with a strong likelihood of being replaced by sugar maple on mesic sites, a combination of sugar and red maple on transitional sites and red maple on dry mesic sites. -from Authors",
author = "Nowacki, {G. J.} and Abrams, {Marc David} and Lorimer, {C. G.}",
year = "1990",
month = "1",
day = "1",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "36",
pages = "276--292",
journal = "Forest Science",
issn = "0015-749X",
publisher = "Society of American Foresters",
number = "2",

}

Composition, structure, and historical development of northern red oak stands along an edaphic gradient in north-central Wisconsin. / Nowacki, G. J.; Abrams, Marc David; Lorimer, C. G.

In: Forest Science, Vol. 36, No. 2, 01.01.1990, p. 276-292.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Composition, structure, and historical development of northern red oak stands along an edaphic gradient in north-central Wisconsin

AU - Nowacki, G. J.

AU - Abrams, Marc David

AU - Lorimer, C. G.

PY - 1990/1/1

Y1 - 1990/1/1

N2 - Forty-six relatively undisturbed Quercus rubra stands were surveyed. DCA and overstory importance values were used to separate stands into 4 groups: Q. rubra-Acer saccharum, Q. rubra-A. rubrum-A. saccharum, Q. rubra-Q. alba-A. rubrum, and Q. rubra-A. rubrum-Betula papyrifera. Stand position along DCA axis I was significantly correlated with soil texture, which was interpreted as an edaphic gradient from rich, mesic to poorer, dry mesic sites. All groups were dominated by overstory northern red oak; however, changes in understory dominance from sugar maple to red maple occurred from mesic to dry mesic groups. Moreover, basal area and age decreased and shrub cover increased from mesic to dry mesic groups. Historical data suggest that northern red oak was relatively unimportant in presettlement forests in the area, with the exception of transitional dry mesic sites. Most of north-central Wisconsin was completely logged and physical evidence of fire was found within or near 2/3 of the stands surveyed. These disturbances are thought to have created conditions favorable for northern red oak establishment, leading to its increased dominance in the region. Northern red oak were consistently the oldest and largest individuals in all stands and formed an even-aged canopy. Substantial northern red oak recruitment into the tree size class seemed to last for only 25-30 yr after disturbance (probably until canopy closure), after which only shade-tolerant species were successful in the understory. Under today's low disturbance regime, northern red oak may be restricted to a single generation with a strong likelihood of being replaced by sugar maple on mesic sites, a combination of sugar and red maple on transitional sites and red maple on dry mesic sites. -from Authors

AB - Forty-six relatively undisturbed Quercus rubra stands were surveyed. DCA and overstory importance values were used to separate stands into 4 groups: Q. rubra-Acer saccharum, Q. rubra-A. rubrum-A. saccharum, Q. rubra-Q. alba-A. rubrum, and Q. rubra-A. rubrum-Betula papyrifera. Stand position along DCA axis I was significantly correlated with soil texture, which was interpreted as an edaphic gradient from rich, mesic to poorer, dry mesic sites. All groups were dominated by overstory northern red oak; however, changes in understory dominance from sugar maple to red maple occurred from mesic to dry mesic groups. Moreover, basal area and age decreased and shrub cover increased from mesic to dry mesic groups. Historical data suggest that northern red oak was relatively unimportant in presettlement forests in the area, with the exception of transitional dry mesic sites. Most of north-central Wisconsin was completely logged and physical evidence of fire was found within or near 2/3 of the stands surveyed. These disturbances are thought to have created conditions favorable for northern red oak establishment, leading to its increased dominance in the region. Northern red oak were consistently the oldest and largest individuals in all stands and formed an even-aged canopy. Substantial northern red oak recruitment into the tree size class seemed to last for only 25-30 yr after disturbance (probably until canopy closure), after which only shade-tolerant species were successful in the understory. Under today's low disturbance regime, northern red oak may be restricted to a single generation with a strong likelihood of being replaced by sugar maple on mesic sites, a combination of sugar and red maple on transitional sites and red maple on dry mesic sites. -from Authors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025693724&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025693724&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 276

EP - 292

JO - Forest Science

JF - Forest Science

SN - 0015-749X

IS - 2

ER -