Congenital tracheal stenosis with unilateral pulmonary agenesis is a rare and frequent fatal combination. In an 8-year period, 5 infants (ages 2 to 6 months) with these anomalies were treated. The presenting signs and symptoms consisted of wheezing, stridor, and tachypnea and included frank respiratory failure requiring emergency therapy in several patients. The operative repair consisted of segmental resection and anastomosis in one patient, and rib-cartilage tracheoplasty in the other four. Two infants died, one of cerebral hypoxia, and the other of aortotracheal fistula. Long-term follow-up in the three survivors is satisfactory.
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